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Full text of "Archeological Atlas of Ohio"

ARCHEOLOGICAL ATLAS 

OF OHIO 



Showing the Distrihutioii of the Various Classes of 

Prehistoric Remains in the State 



WITH A MAP 
OF THE PRINCIPAL INDIAN TRAILS AND TOWNS 



By WILLIMI C. MILLS 



PubUshed by THE OHIO STATE ARCHEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL; SOCIETY 



COLU-MBIiSl 

PUBLISHED FOR THL SOCIETY BY 

FRED J. HEER 

1914 



E 


7S* 


o 


3 M? 


Copy" 6" 



LIMITED TO 500 BOUIND COPIES 



I 



PREFACE. 



The territory embraced witliin the State of Ohio probably 
contains a greater muuber of prehistoric r<'mjiins tiian any other 
equal ai-ca in tlio ilissiMsipjn valley. Tlic numher of these earth- 
works lias licen \'arionsly estimated. Sniuc wi'iteis have esti- 
mated the number of tnmuli at 1(},U()0 and tlic unctosures, etc., at 
1,000 to ],oOO, making the total umnber of earthworks more 
than 11,000, As a matter of fact these estimates were based upon 
wliat was known of such comities as Scioto, Knss, Pirkaway, 
Butler, Hamilton, Warren, "Washington ami Licking, all of wiiich 
were gj-eat centers of prehistoric activity. If all tlie counties in 
the state were dotted over with the earthworks of prehistory man, 
as are the counties mentioned, the estimate would 1)0 inadequate. 
But we Hnd tlie entire northwest part of the state luisuited in jn'e- 
history times for occupancy by a preliistoric people, as the greater 
portion was low and swampy and at certain seasons of the year 
covered with water. Again the southeast part of the state was 
entirely too rough and hilly and the valleys of the streams small, 
so that agriculture was carried on with great <lifficulty. The val- 
ley.s of the two Miamis, Scioto and ^Muskingum were well adapted 
for the abode of prehistoric man and here we hnd his principal 
moimments. 

The task of recording these monuments was l)egun in a very 
early day hy Col. Chas. Whittlesey, President of the Western 
Reserve Historical Society. He had constructed a large wall map 
V2 X 14 feet and had recorded upon it all the knowu monuments. 
This ma]) is now the property of the Ohio State Ai-clieological 
and Historical Society and was drawni hy Thomas Mathew, Pro- 
fessor of Drawing at the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege (State ITniversity). No date is marked njion the map but no 
(ionlit it dates back to the <'arly TO's. In ISOl an Arclicologir-a! 
Map of Oliio was published by the Smithsonian Institution, upon 
which many additional moimds were noted. In 1895 Prof. War- 
ren K. Moorehead constructed for tlie Society a new Arclicol- 
ogical map and commenced to map the state .systematically. The 
size of tlie new map was 6x6 feet which was niucli smaller than the 
map made for Col. Whittlesey. After Prof. Moorehead's resig- 
nation in 1897 the writer conducted a systematic examination of 
the State, county by county, verifying wherever possilile those 
monuments already kno-\vn and at the same time adding new 
rei'ords to the map. After due considei'ation the Executive Com- 



nuttee of the Society found that a wall map would be entii-ely 
too unwieldy and undesirable as a published account of the earth- 
works of Ohio and they changed the plan of publication to an 

Archaeological Atlas of Ohio, by comities, a more convenient form 
for examination and study. 

In i)reseiithig the Archeological Atlas of Ohio, the author 
wishes to state it is as near complete as is at present ptissililc, 
remindful of thv. fact tliat many monuments lia\'e been destroyed 
by a century or more of cultivation of the soU and by otlicj' de- 
structive agencies and tliat many, no doubt, exist that we have 
no records of. 

The various classes of eartliworks shown on the maps of tlie 
Atlas are as follows: Mounds (mortuary), enclosures (circular, 
crescent and square) village sites, burials (ordinary interments), 
cemeteries, stone graves, effigies, petroglyphs, flint quarries and 
caches. The symbols designating the various earthworks, are 
.sho^^^l in the subjoined cartographic table. 

Tlie mound, fm- the most jiart erected as a monument to the 
dead, is the best known and ninst aliundant of the earthworks of 
Ohio. They are usually conical in form and varying in height 
from a few feet In 67 feet and in diameter from 10 to several 
hundred feet. Tiiey may occur singh' or in groups but always in 
close proxunity to their \illagcs. Eoss county has 370 recorded 
burial mounds, Lickhig (county has 225, Butler county 221, Jack- 
son county and Pick;iway county tie for fourth place with 173 
each, while Auglaize, llenry and Wood comities have no records 
of a single mound. Total numher of recorded mounds in tlie 
state, 3,513. 

The division of enclosures into three classes — the circular, 
the s(|nare and the crescent — is merely an arrangement of con- 
venience suggested hy their forms and is not necessarily indicative 
of purposes for which they were constructed. 

With res))pct to pui-pose and location, the follo'ving cl issifica- 
tlon prol)ably is more desirable: (1) "Hill-ti.p" ei !e .-es, of 
irregular form, coiifiuiiiing to the topograjihy of t nd on 

which they lie and from thi natural strategic advanta^ their 

position, suggesting a milit '-y. that is, a defensive use, 
closures, geometi'ic in design re or less symmetrical and ated 
on low or level lands, the ))i nose of which may have 1) a the 
same, i)ul ]K'rha[is coiistrnctei jy a different culture; a' (3) 



W 



enclosures partaking somewhat of the characteristics of the two 
preceding classes imt lo(;ated oji high oi' low groiuid apparent!}" 
with little regard to topography. 

Fort AiicicDt, in Warren county, is the best example of the 
hill-top enclosui'es of the state. Enclosures of tlais class usually 
are constructed of stone and earth combined, and occur most fre- 
quently in the southern half of the state though not uuconmion 
elsewhere. 

The best examples of the second named class are foimd in 
Licking, Ross, Butler, and other counties contiguous to the Mus- 
kingum, Hcioto and JVXiami rivers. They take the form of circles, 
squares, crescents, etc., singly or in combination and usually are 
constructed entirely of earth. 

The third class of enclosures occur principally in the southern 
portions of the state and In several counties south of Lake Erie. 
They vary greatly iji form and location and consequently in 
probable uses. The total number of enclosures recorded in the 
various counties of Ohio is 587. Eoss comity stands first with 49, 
Licking count}' 36, Pickaway eoimty 33 and Franklin eoimty 
comes fourth with 28. 

The village sites marking the places where aboriginal "villages 
or camps existed are scattered pretty generally over the state. 
They furnish intimate data regarding the domestic life of the 
aborigme. Among the important village sites ai*e the Baimi vil- 
lage site and the Gartner site, in Ross count}'. Boih have Ijeen 
explored by the Society and the results printed in the Society's 
publications. The total mmiber of village sites recorded in the 
state is 354. Miami county leads with 35 recoi'ded sites, Jackson 
county 22, Hamilton 17, and Darke coimty 13. 

Cemeteries and bui-ials are self explanator}-. The}- usuall}' 
occur in or near viUage or camp sites. The stone grave is merely 
a local variation of burial custom occuriing most frequently along 
the Ohio river where the aliundance of slabs of loose stone en- 
couraged theii" use in preparing graves. 

Of the effigy mounds, the greatest is the Serpent Mound of 
Adams county. Otliers are the Opi^ossum Mound of Licking 
county, the Warren county Serpent, the tapir like figure in Scioto 
count}' and several anomalous figures in Pickaway, Ross and other 
counties. These works ai'e described under their respective 
counties. 

Peti'oglyphs or rock pictures are found cut into exposed rock 
surfaces and arc most abundant along the Ohio river. Among 
the r^ -..'e ini]iortant of the petroglyphs are those in Jackson, 
Mei£,j, Belmont, Columbiana and Cuyahoga counties and de- 
scribed under those counties. 

Flint quarries, the principal ones of whicli are located in Lick- 
ing, Muskingum and Coshocton covin^-ies, were of great importance 



in the aboriginal economy. Their purpose is evident — the siip 
plying of raw material for the manufacture of the multitude of 
chipped flint objects found in practically every section of the state. 
Flint (Quarries recorded number 109. The total nmnber of the 
various classes of eai-th"\A'orks recorded upon the maps of the 
Atlas are as follows : 

Moimcis (Burial) 3,513 

Enclosures (Square, circular und crcsceul) 587 

Village Sites 354 

Burials (Ordinary intemieiits) 7^4 

Cemeteries 39 

Ston? Graves 17 

Effigy Mounds 5 

Petroglyphs 17 

Flint Quarries 109 

Caches 5 

Rock Shelters 35 

Total 5.396 

The author is under man}- obligations to Mr. H. C. Shetrone 
for his mitiring efforts in assembling the I'ecords of the earth- 
works and placing the marks in the proper position on the maps 
and for personal examination of sections along the Ohio River. 
To Mr. Phillip Hitikle of Cincinnati for fuiiiishiiig the records 
for Hamilton county. To Mr. Ahner Hegler for furnishing the 
records for Fayette county. To Judge H. C. Miller and Mr. F. E. 
Bingman of Jaeksim for tiie records of Jackson county. 

The author is also indebted to many othei's in the various 
counties of the state, ivho aided in many ways to ftn-nish records 
and assist iu locating the archeological remains for a permanent 
record. 

Wm. C. Mills. 

Columbus, Ohio. March, 1914. 



A 

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CARTOGRAPHIC TABLE. 

Mounds (burial) 

Endasures (square). 

Enclosures (circular). 

Kudos urcs (crescent). 

Village Sites. 

tiiirials (ordinary interments). 

Cemeteries. 

Stone Graves. 

I^^ffigy Mounds. 

fetroglyplis. 

Flint Quarries. 

Caches. 

Rock Shelters. 



IV 



<t 



CONTENTS. 

I'refiK-e Ill 

Conicnis V 

l.i-il of M;i]>s siiowiiig nistrilnition of Earthworks, by Counties V 

List (jf Linmlies, .Vrciieologically Descriliecl V 

I-ist of iiliisirations VI 

liifljan Trails and Towns in Uhio VII 

Ma[i Showing Location of Indian Trails and Towns in Ohio IX 

Maj) Showing Distribution of Earthworks in Ohio XI 



LIST OF MAPS SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHWORKS, 

BY COUNTIES. 



LIST OF COUNTIES, ARCHEOLOGICALLY DESCRIBED. 



PI. 



Adams county. . . . 

Allen county 

Ashland county . . 
Ashtaliuia connly 
Athens county . . . . . 
Auglaize county . . , 
Belmont county . . , 

Brown county 

Butler county . . . . 
Carroll county . . . . 
Chanii)aign county . 

Clark county 

Clermont connty . , 
Clinton county . , . , 
Coliinibiana county 
Coshocton county . . 
Crawford county . . 
Cuyahoga comity , 

Darke county 

Defiance county . . , 
Delaware county . , 

Erie comity 

FairfieM county , . . 
Fayette county , , . . 
Franklin county . . . 
Fulton eounlv , . , . 

Gallia county 

Geauga county . . . . 
Greene county . . . . 
Guernsey county . . 
Ilainillon county . . 
Hancock county . . 
Hardin county . . . . 
Harrison county . . 
Henry county , . . . 
Hig'hland county . . 
Hocking comity , . . 
Holmes cotmty . , . 

fhiron county 

Jackson [■oiuity , . . 
Jefferson county , . . 

Knox county 

Lake county . . . . . 
Lawrence county . . 



ATK. 

I 
2 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

lO 

II 

12 
!3 

14 
LS 
:6 

1/ 
rS 

19 

20 
21 
22 

24 

25 
26 

27 

2S 
29 
30 

.V 

.p 

33 

34 
35 
36 
37 
3'^ 

3<3 
40 

41 
42 

43 
44 



PLATE. 

Licking comity 45 

Logan county 46 

Lorain county 47 

Lucas county 48 

Madison county 49 

Mahoning comity 50 

Marion county 51 

Medina connty 52 

Meigs county 53 

Mercer comUy 54 

Miami county 55 

Monroe county 56 

Montgonici-y county 57 

Morgan county 58 

Morrow county 59 

Muskingum county 60 

Noble county 61 

( )ttawa county 62 

Paulding county 63 

Perry county 64 

Pickaway county 65 

Pike county 66 

Portage county 67 

Prclilc county 68 

!\nn:im county 69 

Richland county 70 

Ross county 71 

Sandusky county 72 

Scioto county 73 

Seneca county 74 

Shelby connty 75 

Stark county 76 

Summit county 77 

Tnunhiill county 78 

Tuscarawas county 79 

Union county 80 

Van Wert county 8t 

Vinton county 82 

Warren county 83 

Washington county , 84 

Wayne county 85 

Williams comity 86 

W'ood county 87 

AVyandot county 88 



PAGE. 

A '. .nis county i 

Allen county 2 

Ashland county 3 

Ashtabula county 4 

Athens county 5 

Auglaize county 6 

Behnoiit county 7 

Brown county S 

Butler county 9 

Carroll county 10 

Chanipagin county 11 

Clark county 12 

Clermont county 13 

Clinton county 14 

Columbiana county 15 

Coshocton county 16 

Crawford county 17 

Cuyahoga county 18 

Darke county 19 

Deliance county 20 

Delaware county 21 

Erie county 22 

Fairfield counly 23 

Fayette county 24 

Franklin county 25 

Fulton county 26 

Gallia county 27 

(jeauga county 28 

( Ireene county 29 

Guernsey county 30 

Hamilton county 31 

Hancock county 32 

Hardin county ^^ 

Harrison county 34 

Henry counly 35 

Highland county 36 

Hocking county 37 

I lolmes county 38 

Huron county 39 

Jackson county 40 

Jefferson county 41 

Knox county 42 

Lake county 43 

I-awrcnce county . 44 



PAGE. 

Licking county 45 

Logan county 46 

Lorain county 47 

Lucas county 48 

Madison county 49 

Mahoning county 50 

Marion couiity 51 

Medina county 52 

Meigs county 53 

Mercer county 54 

Miami county 55 

Monroe county 56 

Montgomery county 57 

Morgan county 58 

Morrow county 59 

Muskingum county 60 

Noble county 61 

Ottawa county 62 

Paulding county 63 

Perry county 64 

Pickaway county 65 

Pike county 66 

Portage counly 67 

Preble county 68 

Putnam county 69 

Richland connty 70 

Ross county 71 

Sandusky county 72 

Sciott) county 73 

Seneca count)' 74 

Shelby county 75 

Stark county 76 

Summit county yy 

Trumbull county 78 

Tuscan ly 79 

L'nion coamy 80 

\'an Wert county 81 

^'i^to^ county 82 

W'arren county '...'..... 83 ■ 

Washington county '.i- 84 

\\'a\'ne county 85 

\^'ilh'ams coimly 86 

Wood county 87 

Wvandot county 88 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I'ACK, 

Thi; Seqienl Mmiml Fronlispiece 

View Sketch of Serjient Moiiml i 

Transversi^ Sivlions nf the ("irenl Serpent Mouml i 

Ancient Work iit Aslitabuhi Cu 4 

Ancient Work in Athens County 5 

I )iie of the Barnesvillc Track Rocks _ 7 

Stune Graves in a Mound near Alienleen 8 

Stone Cjravc near Aljenleen - 8 

Arched Stone Grave near Kipley 8 

Ancient \\'orks in Bntler Co 9 

Huiler Coiiniv Tort g 

Ancient Work. Clennonl Co 13 

"The Gridiron". Clemiont Co 13 

The Johnson Mound. Wallionciing, Ohio 16 

Ancient Work, Cnyahoga Co [8 

The "Inilejiendeuce Slab", Cuj'ahoga Co iS 

Earfhworks near Worthington. I'ranklin Co. - a^ 

Ancient Work. Green Co 2ij 

Fortified Hi!l. 1 [amiiton Co 31 

Walls and (ialeway. Miami Co . , 31 

Fort Hill. Highland Co 36 

Endo.sure, Hocking Co 37 

E:irth\vorks at .\'orwalk . . , 39 

Hoone kock .ShcUcr, Jackson Co , 411 

Cieneral View of I'etroglyphs near Leo, Jackson Co _ . , 40 

i'lan of Cemetery Mound. Ml. \'criion 4^ 

Section of Cemetery Moiiud, Ml, Vernon 42 

Earthworks at Newark 45 

Works in I,orain Co 47 

Works in ! .orain Co 47 

Works Near Toledo 48 

Miami County Knclosure ^5 

Ancient Works. Montgomery Co. , 57 

Enclosure three miles below Dayton 57 

Stone Fort at (ilenford. Perry Co 64 

View from Interior of Glenford Fort 64 

The Cross, Picl^away Co 65 

Stone Mound. Snake Den Group, Pickaway Co. 65 

Ancient Work. Pike Co 66 

Squier & Davis' View of The Graded Way 66 

The Hopeton Works, Ross Co 71 A 

The Adena Mound. Ross Co 71 A 

The Shriver (iroup, Ross Co 71B 

Spruce Hill Fort, Ross Co - 71 i 

The Hopewell Works, Ross Co 71 1 

The Cedar Banks Works. Ross Co ." 71 j 

.Ancient Works. Scioto Co 73 

The Portsmouth W'orks 73 

The Serpent Mound. Warren Co S3 

Map of Fort .Ancient X3 A 

Glimpses of Fort Ancient — 

Great tiateway from ihe North 

Section of South Wall. Old Fort 

West Wall, North Fort Near Entrance 

East Wall from Field Outside 

Section of East Wail, Nortli Fort 

West Wall, North Fort 

Fntrancc lo Fort from Inside, Looking West 

Entrance lo Fort from the East ' 

Entq nee to Fort from the West. Looking East ^3!: 

Fart' .'orks at Marietta 84 

VI 



INDIAN TRAILS AND TOWNS IN OHIO. 



The iiiiiiiii'tancc of the aboriginal trails of Ohio to the settle- 
ment and (lc\-('lo])nicnt nf the state, liardly can be overestimated, 
in many instances tliey determined the loeation of the early wliite 
settlements as well as the first forts and military roads, many of 
them later becoming peionanent higliways. They ranged in width 
from a nu've trail threading the wildei-ness to jiaths of a few feet 
wide in tlie more open eonntry and generally followed liie high 
gronnd Ijetween the water courses or hills and ridges adjaeent to 
the streams. 

It was along these trails that the aboriginal Ohio peoples 
traveled fmm one part of the state to another, whether engaged 
in warfare, the chase, trade and barter, or migration. Later they 
served, togetlier with navigable streams, as the only means of en- 
tranee for the white traders and settlers who pushed their way 
into tlie f-nuiitr>- west and nni-th >>]' the Oliio i-iver. Tims the trails 
in great mea^nre determined tlie conrse of improved higiiways 
and in tliis way strongly influenced the location of conmnniities 
and towns. 

T]-ail No. 1. The "Great Trail" so-called, was the most im- 
portant of tlie east and west trails in Ohio. It was the western 
extension of the great highway between tbe Indian country 
around Delaware and Chesapeake hays, running westward to the 
forks of the Ohio, where later Fort Pitt and Pitts])urg were to 
be. thence westward through Ohio to Sandusky Bay and around 
the west end of Lake Erie to a junction with the trails leading 
to the com.itry around Lake St. Clair. The principal Indian 
towns on the Great Trail in Ohio were the Tuscarawas and Beaver 
towns where it crossed the Tuscarawas river; Mohican .Tohn's 
to^\■n, further west; and the Sandusky towns around Sandusky 
hay and ]-iver. At a later period, the Great Trail was the high- 
way eonnecting Foi-t Pitt, at the forks of the Ohio ; Fort Laurens, 
located at the crossing of the ti-ai! and the Tuscarawas river: Fort 
Sandusky on Sandusky bay. and Fnrt Detroit, at Deti'oit. 

Trail No. 2. Of striking im|)ortaiice was the Scioto tniii I'un- 
ning north and south through the state, between Sandusky hay 
and the mouth of the Scioto river. Ascending the Sandusky river, 
crossing the portage and descending the Scioto to its juncture 
with the Ohio, tlu' Scioto trail crossed the latter river and joined 
the famous "Warriors' Path," leading far into the southland. 
Together these trails constituted one of the greatest war paths 
of the westei'u country. The principal townis were the Sandusky 
towns near the bay; the Pipe's towns. Half King's town, Wyandot 
to-vm, in the vicinity of the upper rapids of the Sandusky river; 
Mingo and Delaware towns in Delaware county: Old Salt l^ick 
town and Mingo town in Franklin county; Maguck and the Chil- 



li{'otlie towns in Pickaway and Ross; tlui-rican Tom's town and 
Wanduchale's town further south and (.'hillicotiie on the Ohio, or 
Lower Shawnee town, at the mouth of the Scioto. The northern 
portion of this trail was identical with the route of Trail No. 6. 

Trail No. 3. Tins trail connected the Indian country about 
the forks of the Muskingum with the Shawnee settlements on the 
Scioto and thence west and north to the impoiiant Miami towns 
on the Miamis and the aj>per cuui'se of the Mauniee river. At the 
Muskingum forks it connected with important trails running east 
and north. The principal touiis were Concliake, White Woman's, 
Wakatonhka. Frencli Margeret's, Maguck, Cornstalk's, ITpper 
Ohilliciithe and Pickawillany. 

Tiail No. 4, fretpiently known as the Shore Trail, followed 
the southern shore of Lake Erie, fi'oni ^^■here lOrie, Penn., uow 

stands we.stward along Sandusky bay and then joined the trail 
north to the site of Deti-oit. I*ettquotting (own and the towns 
around Sandusky hay were touched by this trail. 

Trail No. .5, known as the Cuyahoga- Muskingum Trail, ex- 
tended fi'om the mouth of tl-e Cuyahoga i-i\'er on the north and 
following the Cuyahoga river and crossing the i)ortage in Summit 
county, descended tlie Tu.scarawas and Muskingum to its inoutli. 
The ]n'incipal towns on this li'ail were Saguin's Post, t)ttawa town 
and -Mingo town on the Cuyahoga; Tuscarawas and Beaver towns 
' on the Great Trail: Conchake and White Eyes towns near the 
forks of tbc Muskingum ;md the se^■eraI Delawai'c to^vns to the 
south. 

Trail No. 6 was one of the most Important fur routes between 
the Lakes and the Virginia country, Tt entered Ohio opposite 
the month of the Great Kanawha river, passed through the salt 
region of Jackson comity to a Juncture with trail Xo. 2 at Maguck, 
from whi(rh point north the two trails were practically merged. 
With its southern extension through the mountains this trail 
formed one of the greatest highways between the southern and 
the central Ohio counties. 

Trail No. 7. known as the old Mahoning trail entered Ohio 
where the Mahoning river crosses the state line. Eastward it 
joined the Great Trail to the forks of the Ohio. Its westward 
course led through Porta ■ and Smm i counties to Sandusky 
Bay. The ]>rinci]ial town ere Sa uick and Mahoning to^vns 
on the Mahrming. 

Trail No. 8 connected ""' il No. 3 with the Mamnee river, at 
the mouth of tlie Augl . 'c. us forming a land-water route to 
Lake Krie. The old town o Wapogkonetta and Little Turtle's 
and Blue .Tacket's to' i were on this trail. 



VII 



I 



Trail No. 9 (.'xtt'iidefl from Will's town on the ilusliiiignin to 
Crow's town on the Ohio near the present f-ity of Hteulieiiville. 
This trail, as well as trails 1 and 2 wore extensively used liy the 
first wliites Avho pushed theii- way into the country north and west 
of the Ohio. 

Trail No. 10 connects Chillieothc on the Ohio with Trail No. 3 
midway In-twcen ilad river and Plekawillany. It follows in a 
general way the \^atershed hetween Paint creek and the Little 
Miami river. 

Ti-ail No. 11 entered Ohio from the sonih, criissins tlie river 
west of tile site of Cincinnati. It follDwed the course oT the Miami 
river northward and joined Trail No. 3 at Pickawillany. 

Trail No. 12 was a branch from the Great Trail, leaving that 
trail at Painted Post in Cohmil)inua county and extt'udiug south- 
ward to a jiincturo with Trail No, .■> near Conchake. The principal 
towns were Three Ijeg.s" town, New Comer's town and White Eyes 

t0A\11. 

Ti-ail No. 13 extended from Maguck southeast to the Mus- 
kingum riviT thi'U<-e southward, crossing the Ohio river in Wash- 
ington county. This was a well kuown war trail fnini the Shawnee 
settlements on the Scioto to the Indian setth-ineiits in south- 
western Pennsylvania. 

Trail No. 14 extended from a juncture with Trail No. 11 
noi-thward through the western tier of comities to the headwaters 
of the AVahash. Its course led near the present towns of Eaton 
and Hamilton. 

Trail Xit. lo ennnccted the towns at the inmith of the Scioto 
with Trail No. 3 near French Margaret's town in Fairfield county. 
It i)asK('d thrnugli the gi'cat salt region of Kalt creek and .Tacksou 
county and doubtless played an important part in the aboriginal 
salt industry. The jivincijial towns were French Margaret's towm, 
Standing Stone town and Lower Shawnee town. 

Trail No. Ki was a connecting link Ix-tween Trails 5 and 6. 
It^ course followed the Ohio river and the i)rincipal towns were 
AA''anduchaIe's town and Kiskiminetas. 

Trail No. Ifi was a connectinti link between Trails ii and r>. 
Its conr.'^e followed that of the Ohio river, usually some distanee 
inland and the jn-incipal towns were AYanduchale's and Kiski- 
minetas. A Iiranch led southward through Jackson county. West 
Virginia. 

The Indian towns shown on the map, in connection with the 
trails, sliouhl not be confused with the village sites of the county 
maps, which are detennined solely by the matei'ial evidences 
scattered through the soil, while the former are based entirely 
u])on historic evidence. Hriefly the State nia]! aims to show in a 
c))niposile mannci'. as nearly as possible the location of the more 
important aboriginal trails and Indian towns, regardless of 
chronology, of which there is historic recoi-d. While extending 
down info historic times, the trails and many of the towns doubt- 
h^ss reached far back into flie pre-liistory period of the teri'ifory 
now wifhin the State of Ohio and sei've as a connecting link be- 
tween the two ei'as. 




The Muskinsuni Trail, Tuscarawas Co. 




'riio .Miiakiiianm Trail. 

View l.'iki'n uii llii; summil nf W;ill;ice RttliiL-, iii'Jii" 
Slock|ii'ia. Ohio, wlii-TK [he Imiiaiis I:iy walchliig l!ig 
Botti'111 hlucklioiisi.' aiTiiss ihi; Mnskingiim river llie day 
preccnilinK t)ie nigliC iiT t!ic iiiassacre. 



Via 




MAP SHOWING INDIAN TRAILS AND TOWNS IN OHIO. 



IX 



WILLIAMS. 







MAP or OHIO SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHWORKS. 



XI 




The Great Serpent, 



ADAMS COUNTY. 

The great "Serpent Mound" of Adams County is in many 
respects the most remarkable of Ohio's prehistoric monuments, 
and ranks among the greatest of the world's so-called effigy 
mounds. It is located in northern Bratton township and occupies 
an eminence which temiinates in a sheer precipice towering nearly 
100 feet above the bed of Brush Creek. The Serpent proper is 
1,254 feet in length, measm-ing along the convolutions, with a 
maximum height of nearly 5 feet. There are three principal con- 
volutions of the body, giving a very realistic undulating effect, 
while the tail is coiled twice aroimd. The head is somewhat con- 
ventional, being triangular in shape, with the anterior side of the 
triangle concaved to form the mouth. Before the mouth is an 
oval figure 120 feet long and 60 feet wide which the sei-pent ap- 
parently is about to swallow. 

The Serpent Mound was fii'st described by Squier and Davis, 
the pioneers of American Archeology, in 1848. In 1885, through 
the efforts of Prof. Frederick W. Putnam, of Harvard Univer- 
sity, steps were taken which secured perpetual preservation of 
this great earthwork. Through liis initiative, a subscription fund 
was raised by certain public spirited women of Massachusetts, and 
the land containing tlie Serpent was purchased and deeded to the 
trustees of the Peabody museum of Harvard University. That 
institution in 1900 deeded the Serpent Mound Park to the Ohio 
State Archeological and Historical Society, for perpetiaal pi'cser- 
vation as a public park. A tablet bearing the history of the Ser- 
pent since it came to the notice of white men, was erected in the 
park in 1902. 

Professor Putnam, to whom more than to any other man is 
due the credit for the preservation of the Serpent, made extensive 
excavations of the site which were fully described by him in the 
Century Magazine for April, 1890. 

Probably the most comprehensive and complete history of the 
Serpent Mound yet published is that of Hon. B. 0. Eandall, sec- 



retary of the Ohio State Archeological and Historical Society, 
entitled "The Serpent Moimd," in which the great work and its 
possible relation to primitive serpent worship are discussed. A 
large model of the Serpent and Park is on exliibitiou in the So- 
ciety's museum, and shows on a reduced scale the exact- appear- 
ance of this great work. The stream flowing at the foot of the 
cliff, the trees and grass, roadways, fences and other details, are 
shown in their natural colors and proportionate dimensions. 

Adams county is rich in mounds and earthworks of the ab- 
original peoples of Ohio, pai'ticularly along Brush creek and its 
tributaries and along the Ohio river. 

Several pictographs, mostly in the form of human footprints 
cut in the exposed rock surfaces, are to be seen along the Ohio 
river, near the mouth of Stout's run, in Green township. 

The following table shows, by townships, the number and 
kinds of earthworks in the county : 

ADAMS COUNTY. 



Townships. 


■a 
a 

1 


in 
u 
I- 

P 

in 
O 

1 


if} 

1 


1 
u 


V 

> 

u 

O 

g 

-*-■ 




(3. 

u 
-l-l 




Wiiir^h^^'iter 


6 

II 

6 


5 


I 
I 

I 


I 

5 
3 
I 


I 

I 








Scott 








Rratton 


I 












Wayne 


2 

II 
2 


I 


3 
I 










Oliver 


2 

3 

I 

4 


t 






Meigs 




















Tiffin 


4 
3 
3 

5 
5 


4 

2 


I 










TefFersfin 










Snrip'P's 




5 
I 

5 










Jvlouroe 


I 


2 
















2 












Totals 


ss 


T3 


10 


31 


2; 


I 


2 


117 







^Ftf* 







SOD-.- 

=^D ARK SOIL 

" YeLLOW'CLAY 






Transverse Sections of th? Great Serpent. 



o ^ - ^U-^-r-4~- 



PIKE 



H F G M U 




ALLEN COUNTY. 

Wliile of considerable importance as an Indian country in 
early historic times, Allen eoimty was not topographically suited 
to eontinuoris aboriginal occupation, and consequently few eai-th- 
works live found within its territory. A condition necessai'v tn 
aU-the-yeai'-around habitation in aboriginal times was natural 
di-ainage. The fact that much of northwestera Ohio, previous to 
the settlement of the country by whites was at certain seasons 
rather inclined to be swampy, accounts for tlie comparatively few 
prehistoric remains in that territory. The "Mound Builder" 
naturally plied the art from which he takes his name, most as- 
siduously in those sections of tlie state where conditions most fa- 
vored permanent and continuous habitation. 

Occasional burials and old camp and village sites and a few 
mounds, are found in Allen county. An important aboriginal trail 
traversed the western part of the county, following the course of 
the Auglaize river, connecting with trails from the lower Scioto 
on the south and with the Maumee river at the mouth of the Aug- 
laize, 

AliEN COnNTY. 



Townships. 


in 

•o 

O 


!8 
w5 

V 

be 

> 


4 

x 
m 


■n 
6 


•a 




1 










Bath 


2 










2 


2 

1 


2 




Amanda 
















Totah 


3 


2 


3 


2 


10 







CO U N T Y 




C Ll N T Y 



ALLEN COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



ASHLAND COUNTY. 

Ashland county is remarkable among the northern counties 
of the state for the comparatively large number of earthen en- 
closures it contains. Most of these cu'^losures are quite small, and 
are both the circular and elliptical, and the rectangular type. 
Green township in particular is rich in these enclosm-es, while 
Mohican township also contains a number. 

The abundance of earthworks in southern Ashland county 
possibly may be due in part to the fact that the Gi'eat Trail passed 
through this section, crossing the headwaters of the Mohican river 
and the numerous streams tributary thereto. Numerous burials, 
old village sites, etc., together with the many stone implements 
found show that southern Ashland county was a scene of consider- 
able activity in aboriginal times. 

ASHLAND COUNTY. 



Townships. 


en 

c 

1 


1 

a 


01 

> 


■n 

■c 

3 


in 

■n 

% 


3 

o 




I 
I 
I 














3 






















2 

3 












5 

2 

I 
1 

9 

2 

3 


I 


I 
I 

3 
























7 
8 










2 


I 


I 




Lake 






3 


I 


I 














26 


26 


4 


7 


I 


64 





COUNTY 



L O RAIN 



COUNTY I 






{' 







ASHLAND COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



K N 



o *■ 



ASHTABULA COUNTY. 



Ashtabula, the extreme uoi-theastcrn county of the state, was 
traversed by the old al.)origmal trail which skirted the southern 
shore of Lake Erie. Throughout the northern pai-t of the county, 
are found evidences of the great importance of this trail as a 
passageway from east to west, south of the great lakes. Man}' im- 
plements of stone and other matei-ials have been picked up along 
the course of this old highway and numerous burials have been 
noted. 

The principal earthworks are in Conneaut, Wayne and Wind- 
sor townships. Several mounds are located along the Ashtabula 
and Grand rivers and their tributaries. An aboriginal cemetery 
of considerable impoi'tance existed on the jiresent site of Con- 
neaut. 

A8HTABm..\ COUNTY. 



Townships. 


in 

•a 

a 
o 


in 

t 

3 

1 


1/3 
V 

bo 


'i-i 


in 

u 

■c 

V 

4-1 

V 

U 


U3 

4-1 

o 

H 




I 






3 
I 














4 
1 
I 

I 


2 




I 












Sheffield 






























I 




















1 












I 

2 












3 




















Totals 


12 


5 


2 


5 


I 


2'i 














ANCIENT WORK 



■3t:/M.£ 



S'oo ^esr 



ASHTABULA COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three mites 




ATHENS COUNTY. 



Ai-eheologieallv unique is the district known as "the plains" 
of Athens county. It consists of an area of upwards of 5 miles 
square, lyinf? south and west of the Hocking river and north of 
the city of Athens. Its surface, quite level, is dotted with moimds 
and enclosures so abundant that from almost any one of them it 
is possible to see another. The elevation of "the plains" is only 
slightly above that of the river, wliile on all sides of it the country 
rises rapidly to considerable heights. This level and pi-otected 
area evidently appealed strongly to the aboriginal liking, as evi- 
denced by the remains of their industry. 

Ames township, on the headwaters of Fedei-al Creek, and 
Alexander township, in the southern part of the county, abound in 
mounds. 

ATHENS COUNTY. 



Townships. 


4 

o 


i 


txo 
> 


a 




1 
I 

3 

i6 
I 

3 

i8 

2 

1 
t 

i6 








York 










5 












Bern . . . . 










1 
6 








I 





























I 








Totals 


63 


12 


2 


77 






ANCIENT WORK 
Athens Co. Ohio 



'' E R R y 



CO. 



ATHENS COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 




impft 



Co U N T Y 



AUGLAIZE COUNTY. 

In common with otlier counties occupying the level plains of 
northwestern Ohio, Auglaize county has lew prehistoric earth- 
worlcs. Doubtless these level counties were extensively frequented 
(luring certain seasons of the year by aboriginal hunters but the 
country further south and east was preferx'ed for fixed abodes. 

Several Indian villages however, were found in Auglaize 
county when white men first entered its territoi-y. The old trail 
passing northward to the Maumee ri^'e^, traversed the western 
part of the county. Along tliis trail, in St. Marys and Noble town- 
ships and facing on the St. Marys river, were three enclosui-ea of 
the crescent type. 

Old village and burial sites are fomid near Wapakoneta and 
along the Auglaize river. 



ATTGLAIZE COTTNTY. 







in 










O 






Townships. 


D 
•n 
O 


4-f 








5? 




l/l 




■3 


n 


T 


3 




c 


r_^ 


3 


o 




W 


r' 


ra 


E- 






I 


I 




Noble 


2 










I 














2 
1 








I 












3 


2 


4 


9 





B^^l 




AUGLAIZE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



BELMONT COUNTY. 

J3olinont county is important archeologieally as pi'ttscntin}; 
fine examples of the so-called petroglyj)lis, or Indian I'Ock pic- 
tures. TliesG petroglyplis are fonnd in several counties of the 
state, ijrineipally those bordering the Ohio river, where they gen- 
erally appear cut into the comparatively smooth surfaces of the 
exposed sandstone of the coal measures Ijordering the river. A 
number of these rock pictures, however, are located independently 
of streams, as in Belmont and Jackson counties. 

The Barnesville Track Rocks, as the Belmont county petro- 
glyplis ha\e been styled, are situated ncai- the city of Barnes- 
ville, in Warren township. They are cut or pecked into the coarse 
sandstone grit, the tools used in most cases having been of stone 
or flint and the outlines alone sufficing to fonn the desired figure. 
The Barnesville petroglyphs consist mostly of outlines of the 
lunnan footprint, of the footprints of various birds and animals, 
of tlic lumian face, of serpents, etc. 

Along the river in eastern Belmont county are located niuner- 
ous mounds, burials and village sites, while in the western portion 
of the county are otlier mounds, village sites and earthworks. 

I 

BELMONT COUNTY. 









i 






ai 




Townships, 


oi 




cH 




■c 


t 










It 

•c 




f 


"(5 




S 




> 


^ 


6 


^ 


^ 










2 












I 


















2 










2 
I 
2 
3 

3 

I 




2 


I 

3 
1 


I 


I 












I 

I 






















3 
2 








York 
























Totals , 


12 


I 


4 


13 


T 


I 


32 






WOTOW 









W^^'- 



fe 0^° 







?3* 



d, 



""-'Z^k^: '^ 



p 
% 



,.A"'(§ 



,W1)K 



-9 



SOMTM hi (If H«TURt 




One of the "BamesviDc Track Rocks," 



H A R R I SON 



C O U fj TV 




BELMONT COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



8 



BKOWN COUNTY. 

Tliis Ohio river county presents an interesting arcliieolosieul 
study. A feature is the great number of burials of the stone grave 
type, which occur probably more frequently along the Ohio river 
in this county than in any other section of the state. The stone 
grave metliod of bui'ial is not considered indicative of a different 
or distinct culture, but merely as a local custom, due, no doulit, to 
the fact that the conveniently Hat stones were abuiKlantly 
available. 

Numerous earthworks occur in so utli eastern Brown county. 
Along White Oak Creek in the central southern portion; on west 
Fork of Brush Creels: in Eagle township and m Perry township. 
A groups of eight small mounds is located on the Perry-Sterling 
township line. 

BBOWN COUNTY. 



Townships, 


a 

Q 


w 
u 
■- 

a 


u 

.■a 
> 




u 
■hi 

V 

B 
U 


o 

a 
o 

in 


in 

o 




12 
2 


3 






































3 


4 






















Scott 


I 












aark 














I 


























2 

4 
I 


I 






I 
I 




Pleasant 






I 






Byrd 


2 
1 
2 












II 
4 


4 
I 


I 
I 


I 
3 












Totals 


41 


H 


5 


II 


2 


6 


79 









. 11 ir .ji.LM- Ul ^l Millliul Hi' E^lVill, IH^lI AIh-mU'LH. 




Stone Grave neat Aberdeen. 




Arched Stone Grave near Ripley, 



BUTLER COUNTY. 

Butler is one of the richest counties, arehjeologieally speak- 
ing, ill Ohio, particularly in number of mounds. It eoutains 221 
moimds, besides 30 other earthworks and aboriginal sites. 

The rich valley of the Miami river, passing through this 
county, offered an ideal place of abode for tlie aboriginal in- 
habitants, and in many places, notably in St. Clair, Ross and Fair- 
field townships, thMr mounds and other works are so thickly lo- 
cated that for long distances it is possible to see from the site of 
one to that of otheiB. The valleys of Indian Creek, Four-mile 
Creek and otbei" tributary streams likewise are thickly dotted with 
mounds. There are impoi-tant enclosures in Fairfield, Union and 
Ross townships. Several of these are combinations of the circle 
01- crescent and the square, ^lsnally with attendant mounds. 

These earthworks are regarded variously as of military and 
sacred significance. Many of the irregular enclosures surmount- 
ing elevated points of vantage doubtless were in the nature of 
fortifications and places of defense. The circular and square 
enclosures, or combinations of the two, usually more geometrical 
in proportions and construction, have inspired various theories 
as to their uses. Many of the Butler county earthworks have 
been described by Squier and Davis in their "Ancient Monuments 
of the Mississippi Valley" and by MeLain in his "Mound 
Builders." 

BUTLER COUNTY. 



Townships. 


(A 

a 
g 


m 


m 

> 




u 
u 

1 

u 

U 




Oxford 


i6 
8 

7 
15 

17 

'5 

35 
6 

7 

lO 

53 
i; 

17 


B 










Milford 


3 

2 






























Reilly 


2 




3 














1 




I 


























I 

4 
7 
4 


I 






















I 
























221 


24 


! 


4 


I 


251 





cawa l-Sj-^z; 







••IHH^ 



■1' 
6 Ml. SOUTM-*v««T <" BWtltTCH. O. 



Aacient Works in Butler County. 




Butler (County) Fort — Three Miles Below Hamillon. 



MONTGOMERY 




BUTLER COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



10 



CARROLL COUNTY. 

Although on the line of the Great Trail and traversed fvoni 
northeast to southwest by a branch trail leading from the Great 
Trail to the forks of the Muskingiun, Carroll county appears 
never to have been t!ie seat of any extensive permanent aboriginal 
occupation. This may be due in part to the absence of important 
streams or extensive valleys, in a country otherwise attractive, 
although rather rugged in topography. 

The only mound so far located, is in the northeastern part of 
Washington township, with a village site and cemetery in Center 
township, a village and liurial site in Perry township and a burial 
in Lee township. A comparatively large niunber of stone and 
flint implements have been picked up in the vicinity of old traUs, 
and along Big Sandy creek in the northern portion, showing that 
aboriginal travel along these old thoroughfares was of considei-- 
able importance. 

OARKOLL COUNTY. 



Townships. 


1 


1 

> 


4 

■c 


•n 
u 

e: 

u 

u 

U 


H 




I 




* 










1 

1 






Center 




I 
1 


I 




















Totals . . 


I 


2 


2 


I 


6 





10 



C O U N T Y 



COLUMBIANA 




HARRISON 



COUNTY 



CARROLL COUNTY 

Scale, one fnch equals three miles 



11 



CHAMP AiaN COUNTY. 

The importance of Cliampaign county to the aboriginal in- 
habitants of Ohio perhaps is not fully reflected in the visible struc- 
tures left behind them. White traders and settlers, when they 
pushed their way into the Mad River valley, found that favorable 
region one of great activity insofar as the red man was concerned. 
The mde fertile valleys and the gently rising slopes both to the 
east and the west, made the county an inviting place of abode. 
And the fact that this was not wholly unappi-eciated is shown by 
the very frequent exhumation of skeletons from the gravel banks 
thi'oughout the county. 

There are six known mounds in Champaign, four enclosures, 
a cemetery, village site, and a number of burials. One of the 
eartliworks located near Catawba Station in Union township, is 
rather anomalous in character. It consists of three small circular 
enclosures, together with parallel embankments of earth. Two 
other enclosures are near Mechanicsburg and the remaining one is 
a crescent enclosure, opening upon the ri^'er, in Slad River town- 
ship. 

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY. 









m 














u 












in 


■"^ 




W] 




Townships. 


en 




m 










■^ 




u 


in 


ID 






1 




> 




I 


O 




I 






I 














I 








I 
I 


I 


I 


r 












Salem 




I 






Urbaiia 


3 
















I 










1 
3 




I 


I 




Goshen 




















6 


A 


I 


6 


I 


i8 







11 




U N T Y } 



CHAMPAIGN COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



12 



CLARK COUNTY. 

Clark county, in topography is much like Champaign, except 
that the Mad Kiver becomes a more important stream and that 
the Little Miami river here has its source, with important tribu- 
tary streams. These, together with several branches of the Mad 
river, make of the county an exceptionally well watered and at- 
tractive region for aboriginal occupation. 

The coimty has many mounds, radiating from a central point 
at Springfield, while several major earthworks are found. The 
more important of these are in Mad River township, with others 
in Springfield and Hannony townships. 

GLARE COUNTY. 









10 














4J 












UJ 






aj 




Townships, 


r/i 




tn 










■V 




D 


Cfl 


u 








o 


> 


'3 

03 


s 
6 


1 


Pike 


3 
















I 


4 








8 

2 

6 
6 








Bethel 


2 


2 

I 










2 

I 








2 






5 




I 








3 

2 




3 




























Totals 


47 


7 


4 


II 


2 


71 





12 




CLARK COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



13 



^ 



CLERMONT COTTNTT. 

The favorite districts of Clermont county, from tlie aborigi- 
nal point of view, were tlie valleys of tlie East Eork of Little 
Miami, Stonelick creek and Twelve Mile creek. By far the most 
important of these is the first named, which crosses the comity 
from west to east in a long loop sweeping to the southward. 

Perhaps the most interesting of the enclosures of the county 
is that situated near the juncture of the East Fork with the lAttle 
Miami. This work, which was fii-st described by Squier and Davis 
in 1848, consists primarily of a square and an irregular circle, 
the two conjoined. From the circle extend parallel walls to a 
imion with a small circle, from which in turn run low walls termi- 
nating in a fan-like proce^. 

About 20 miles up the East Eork there existed another in- 
teresting earthwork, which resembled a girdiron in form. 

There are numerous mounds, village sites and burials in the 
county. 

CI£RMONT COUNTY. 



1 
1 

Townships, 


■n 

i- 

V 

*-« 

11 

u 

'J 


■a 
o 


1 


3 

> 


en 

■c 


1 


f rf>^}i(*n 








' 










4 

4 

5 
i6 




3 

I 

1 








4 
1 

2 
2 


I 






I 






















2 
2 

5 

2 

2 
2 
t 
2 














I 


I 










Ohio . . - 




I 
1 


















Tate 




I 






















I 
















1 


47 


11 


3 


8 


70 




r— 




The "Gridiron." Clermont County, Ohio. 






INTON 
( CO. 




13 



CLERMONT COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three n^Mes 



14 



CLINTON COUNTY. 

The northwestern third of Clinton county is liberally supplied 
with burial mounds, the section being well watered and very fa- 
vorable to hiunan existence under aboriginal conditions. The 
valleys of Dutch creek, Todd's Fork and Lyttle creek are par- 
ticiilarly rich in prehistoric earthworks. Many fine specimens of 
priraitii'e stone and flint implements have been collected in this 
section of the county. 

The important aboriginal trail, running fi'om the mouth of 
the Scioto to a junction with trails on the upper Miami, is believed 
to have passed over the high land in the eastern part of this county. 

CLINTON COUNTY. 



1 

Townships. 


V] 

XI 

a 

3 
O 


s 

3 

s 

1 


m 

V 

*-• 

y5 
1 

> 


in 

3 


to 




lO 

5 






3 






3 
4 








I 


1 
I 








Liberty 


5 
46 

3 

I 

4 
2 

2 

I 


I 
I 
I 


















I 








Clark 
















I 


















I 












Totals 


93 


10 


I 


8 


112 







14 








^ JI 7^V*~T^^^^tSbfc=<^&^J:>e5K» COUNTY 


1 






1 




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' ^"^^W^'J/c^S^L^ 


"^^V^^aT 3rl' " 




JLi fi /MF"^st/ W^\/ / >.-^c>f"--^r^ttii_-WL=^ /\ r^-—^ X \\ 


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i '''^i^ / ^ 1 KV T&. J .y7^ II t,.^v ^ 


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\ ^'C^ ^^a .^^^^ 1 




V 2^ \y -^c" — 1 




f^l^^t^w^M^ ■'M.^-fe^^T' ( l> 


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l^"\.^>^^%P<^C *?^''* J^- Vl^Wy^ y^"'-'A"" "^ 


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kf!My%^^^A rS<%^ vx * i^^^ii^S:^?^^^^^ A^ A.\ 


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y-'i-'^r -si.rfS'^ '^/^— w_if^-i vv^^fa..,. 11 1 11 ii^ii — ==riif 


^^ 


CLINTON COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three nnlles 






^At:s%«ii-^^: r^^ 




















CO |B R w N Z^^^^^-^L ^^h^ 












^^^^ ' 








■ 



15 



COLUMBIANA COUNTY. 

Of most interest among the archeologieal remains of Co- 
lumbiana county, are the Petroglyphs located about one mile 
above Wellsville, on the Ohio river. These Petroglyphs which are 
cut or pecked into the roclt bordering the river and just above low 
water mark, consist of figures of men, animals, turtles, seri)ents, 
etc. There are other PetrogI}'phs similarly placed, near the south- 
eastera corner of Li^'erjDool township. 

Owing to tlie rugged topograpliical nature of the county, the 
lack of imx)ortant streams and valleys, there are few earthworks 
in Colimibiana eoimty. Of the two mounds located, one is in Mid- 
dleton township and one in Wavne to^\-nship. Several burials 
have been located in the interior of the coimty. 

The Great Trail, coming from the forks of the Ohio and pass- 
ing westward to Sandusky Bay, entered the state through section 
25, Middleton township, traversing the county to its southwest 
comer. 

OOLTIMBIANA COTJNTT. 



Townships. 


m 

-a 

1 




in 

n 

•c 

3 

w 


■c 

V 

% 


•n 

t 
1 


1 






I 














2 










I 
I 
















I 












I 




St Qair . 






I 














I 
















Totals 


2 


1 


3 


r 


2 


9 





15 




COLUMBIANA COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



JETFERSON J 



COUNTY \ 



16 



COSHOCTON COUNTY. 

Pew counties present a more typical reeoid of aboriginal life 
than Cosiiocton. Wliile for the most part the topography is 
rugged, the broad and fertile vallej's of the Muskingum, Walhond- 
ing and Tuscarawas furnished ideal territory for the county's first 
inhabitants. Scattered along these streams, on either side and f or 
their entire distance within the county, are numerous evidences 
of a prosperous occupation, evidenced by many moimds, village 
sites, enclosures, etc. 

An important feature of the archeology of Coshocton county 
is the flint quarries from which material was obtained for the 
manufactiu'c of chipped flint implements. These quarries are 
located in Jefferson and New Castlo townships, on both sides of 
the Walhonding river. The deposits of flint are the northeastern 
extension of the immense formation known as Flint Ridge, in 
Lieldng and Muskingum coimties. 

PerhajiS no other sjiot in Ohio was of more importance as a 
center for aboriginal trails than the forks of the Muskingmn. Va- 
rious trails eentorcKl licre, fj-inn whence they extended in prac- 
tically every direction. There were many aboriginal villages 
located here when white tradei's and missionaries came into the 
Muskingum valley from the east. 



COSHOOTOX COUXTV. 















trt 














Ui 


U 










in 










Townships. 




in 

u 
u 

3 

t 


'in 
ho 


in 


> 


2 

a 


U3 









« 


u 


c 


c 


2 




C 


C 


'•^ 


n 





c 







2 
16 


2 
3 


1 

2 
















2 




Perry 


I 






I 








Pike 


I 






I 
2 






















5 


2 




5 
2 
t 
I 
3 




3 




Bedford 










Clark 




t 




















Bethlehem 


8 
I 


2 


I 


I 














3 

13 

2 


2 














2 


2 
















2 










1 




I 








4 

3 
3 


4 

2 




I 




















Oxford 


3 


I 
















Totals 


62 


21 


9 


20 


2 


5 


Tig 








The Johnson Mound, Walhonding, Ohio. 



16 




COSHOCTON COUNTY 

Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



17 



CRAWFORD COUNTY. 

The gi-eater part of the eomparatively few earthworks of 
Crawford county are confined to the southern portion. Like many 

of the level counties of the state, its territory, prior to settlement 
and drainage was not well suited to pei'manent occupation, and 
consequently the population for the most paT-t was a shifting or 
temporary one. 

Of the three enclosures known, in the coimty, one is in Auburn, 
one in Holmes and the third in Polk township. A branch trail, 
leading from the Seioto trail to the Mahoning trail, crossed Craw- 
ford county from southwest to northeast. 

CRAWFORD COUMTT. 









in 












•u 






Townships, 


VI 


in 
u 
u 


4-» 
■J) 

V 


to 








3 


^ 


■3 

X 


1^ 




o 


a 


*r^ 


3 


5 




rA 


W 


> 


ffl 


h 










I 










I 










I 














I 




Todd 


2 
2 
1 










I 




I 










3 
I 
I 
1 






















I 


r 






Polk 
















It 


3 


2 


3 


19 





17 



5 E N E C A 



COUNTY 



I HURON 



C O. 




M A R I ^J 



CRAWFORD COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



18 



CUYAHOGA COIXNTY. 

Ciiyalioga is the most mteresting of the northern tier of 
counties in point of prehistoric remains. Tlio valleys of the Cuya- 
hoga, Chagrin and Eoeky rivers present an interesting study of 
aboriginal remains, particularly of mounds and enflosures. At 
least half a dozen mounds and one emilosure existed ujjou the 
present site of the city of Cleveland. 

The "Independence Slah," a sculptured rock near the village 
of Indejjendenee, is among the more intei'esting of the Ohio petro- 
glyphs. The characters cut on this rock, which is of silicious 
sandstone, are in the form of the footpi'ints of human beings and 
animals and of serpents and unknown symbols. 

There are four enclosures on the Cuyahoga river and one on 
Big Creek. 

The trails which travei-sed Cuyahoga eoimty indicate the 
importance of the territory, one leading from the mouth of the 
Cuyalioga southward to the mouth of the Muskingum, and the 
trail from the Mahoning river, passing westward toward San- 
dusky bay. 

CUYAHOGA COUNTY. 









V3 














V 




UI 








t/j 


,"ti 




j; 




Townsliips. 


tA 


3 


in 




0. 






•a 


s 


V 

be 


ul 

■^ 


^ 


ai 




3 
O 




n 


l- 




1 




3 


Ui 


> 


03 


&, 


H 




5 
4 














1 
















2 










I 


1 
















» 


I 






Independence 


I 


I 




1 






9 

3 

I 


3 










Bedfori;! 
























4 

2 






r 










I 
















Totals 


30 


6 


3 


2. 


1 


42 









J^% 



ANC/tNr WORK 

Cuyohooa Coi/nfy. OA/o. 



^00 ^tE' 




The "Independence Slab." 



18 




M E D I N A 



COUNTY t 



S U M M I T 



CUYAHOGA COUNTY 

Scate, one inch equals three miles 



19 



DAUKE COUNTY. 

Dai'ke county, like others of similar topography, is rather 
sparse in number of prehistoric remains. However, it contains 
one known enclosure in northern Greenville township, six mounds 
and a. number of village sites and burials. The evidences of the 
use of the territory as himting ground and as temporary habita- 
tion, are very abundant, many fine specimens of aboriginal handi- 
work in stone and flint having been found. 

The important trail from the lower Scioto to the headwaters 
of the Maumee, probably crossed northeastern Darke county and 
it is likely that the old trail which later became the Hamilton and 
Eaton road, passed northward into the county and to a junction 
with the northwestern traU. 



DAEKE COtTNTT. 



Townships. 


C/3 

T3 
C 

g 


3 

3 


33 

4-1 

1 

> 


■c 


1 










I 
I 
3 






I 












I 

I 






Allen 








1 

2 
I 

2 






2 


I 










Wabash 


















I 




2 


















2 
















6 


I 


13 


15 


35 






19 



DARKE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



M0NT6OMERV CO. 



20 



DEPIAKOE COUNTY. 

The juncture of the Auglaize with the Maumee river, iu De- 
fiance coimtj, was an important aboriginal point. It was here 
that the trail leading north from tlie Miami and Scioto trails, met 
the Maumee river, and became a water highway down the Maumee 
to Lake Erie. 

Niunerous indications of habitation are foimd at this meet- 
ing point of trail and stream. Village and camp sites abound and 
burials and a few moimds have been noted. Several Indian vil- 
lages were found here by the first white adventurers. 

The topography of the county as a whole, was not conducive 
to permanent settlement and excepting the section mentioned, it 
contains but few earthworks. 

! 

DEFIANCE COXTNTT. 







fli 










V 










-!-■ 






Townships. 


V) 


m 








t3 
C 

O 


> 


■c 

3 

m 


1 






I 








I 




I 




Noble 




3 










I 


I 

2 












2 


4 














3 


8 


4 


15 





20 



HENRY 




DEFIANCE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



PUTN/\M CO. 



21 



DELAWARE COUNTY. 

A total of 75 earthworks have been located in Delaware county. 
The eoimtv having foui' important streams riiniiing from north 
to south was well adapted to primitive habitation. The earth- 
works of the count}' are generally distril^nted throughout these 
four principal valleys. There are six of the enclosure type — 
three in the Olentangy valley, two on Big Walnut creek and one 
at the headwaters of Alum creek. 

The important trail from Sandusky hay to the mouth of the 
Scioto passed through Delaware comity, its course generally fol- 
lowing the highlands liietween the two rivers. 

The numerous interesting relics, several large collections of 
which have been made, show that Delaware county was a favorite 
locality of the aboriginal inhabitants. 



DELAWARE COUNTY. 



Townships. 


■a 
S 


3 
ft 

"u 


in 

u 

*-» 

bo 
> 




'C 
U 


o 




I 

4 
I 
I 

4 

5 

I 

3 
7 
9 
3 
6 

3 
6 

5 




I 










3 


1 




























I 


















I 






































I 


I 






2 


















I 










Berkshire 












2 
































Totals 


6r 


6 


2 


4 


2 


75 







21 




DELAWARE COUNTY 

Seal**, one inch equals three miles 



y 



\ 



.22 



J' 



.4 



r 
,1, ' 



ERIE COUNTY. 

Erie county was of far greater importance in aboriginal times 
than is indicated by tlie earthworks left within its territory. This 
is due in great part to the fact that its iojportauce lay not so much 
in the way of a permanent dwelling place, as in its strategic and 
economical position. With' its entire northern line hordering 
Lake Erie and particularly the waters of Sandusky bay, it shared 
the importance of Sandusky, Cuyahoga and other coimties 
similarly located. 

The advantages to primitive inhabitants of such a bodv of 
water were very great. Eresh water alone was one of their fii-st 
requisites, while fishing, transpoi-tation and travel were other 
paramount attractions. Many important trails led into this sec- 
tion of Ohio, including the trail following the lake shore, so that 
the territory must have been one of great activity in aboriginal 
times. 

Erie has a total of 33 recorded earthworks, including an en- 
closure and one flint quarry, from which material for chipped 
arrow and spear points, knives, etc., was obtained. 

ERIE COUNTY. 



1 

^1 



u 



. J 



Townshi|is. 

/ ■ ' 

, 1 L 


•a 

c 

1 




1^ 
V 

■*- 

V 

1 

> 




in 
'C 

i 

u 


Flint Quarries. 


Totals. 


Margaretta 


•r, 

3c 


* T 


1- 


2 
t 

8 
3 

2 






' 










3 




I 




I 




Oxford 






5 

2 






































Totals . . : 


12 


I 


2 


i6 




I 


3.1 





I. .. . L 



i 






22 



O 




ERIE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



23 



FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 



Fairfield county, witli the exception of the northern tier of 
townships, whieli are sparse in remains, is among the richest of the 
comities of Ohio with respect to number of monnds and other 
works. A total of 143 of the various classes is recorded, including 
two flint quarries and 14 enclosures. 

The most important enclosure of the county is that located 
on the Hocking river in Greenfield township and consisting of a 
combination of the square and the circle. Moimds and other works 
are particularly numerous in the eastern and the extreme south- 
western portions of the county. 

Several impoi'tant trails centered in Fairfield county in the 
vicinity of the present city of Lancaster and a number of Indian 
towns were located in this district and along; the Hocking river. 
The northern and the noriheastem portions of> the county, in the 
vicinity of Buckeye lake wore not well adapted to primitive popu- 
lation, the country before it was cleared having heeii^of a swampy 
nature. However, from the many i-elics found it is sho^iim that the 
prehistoric inhabitants visited those sections frequently for the 
pui'pose of hunting. \ 



FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 



Townships. 



Violet 

Blooni 

Amanda . . . 
Qear Creek 
Liberty . . . , 
Greenfield . . 
Hocking . . . 
Madison . . . 

Walnut 

Pleasant . . . 

Berne 

Richland . . . 
Rush Creek 

Tola Is . 



-3 

i 

s 



o 

o 



.=3 
> 



4 
H 

12 

23 

I 

I 

12 

3 
I 
6 

9 

17 

9 

112 



3 

2 



2 

2 



3 
I 

14 



2 
I 



S 



9" 



I 



u 



2 
2 



143 











23 




|-^T-^X;j— »- ' C K , N s 








o!;^^a^¥4AiQwXLirrTTn--r-:— -f-- . „ county 










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rff 


J9 


y^^Kl9 










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Tj ■ "^W 


-^1 


, /j ^ j jfejISr^' |. ■ \,;l1 t "/^ ^ 








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v* \ ^^ 




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t 


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1 








f 






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— ( 





24 



FAYETTE COUNTY. 

The valleys of Paint creek and Deer creek and their tribu- 
taries in Fayette countj^ show considerable evidence of pre- 
historic population, both in earthworks and in minor artifacts 
found scattered through the soil and on the surface. Only three 
of the enclosure class have been recorded, two in Paint tovmship 
and one in Madison. 

Mounds are fairly abimdant and burials are found through- 
out the country wherever excavations are made in removing gravel 
or for other purposes. Several of the stone grave type of burials 
have been reported in the Paint creek valley, similar to those fre- 
quently found in southern Ohio. 

One of the largest mounds in the county is that near Pleasant 
View in Jefferson towTiship. This mound is located in a modern 
cemetery and after having sei-ved as a memorial to the dead of its 
builders now answers as a last resting place for their successors. 



FAYETTE COITNTT. 



Townships. 


4 


'S 

u 

3 
m 




in 

s 


'A 


in 

u 


lA 




73 

a 


a 


ra 
> 


I- 

m 


a 


4-1 






5 
4 

4 






6 






Paint 


2 


[ 










I 




1 








I 






t 








5 
5 

2 

9 

2 

5 






7 

3 

6 

18 
































2 






















5 


















42 


3 


I 


47 


2 


95 






24 







HIGH LAND 



COUNTY 



FAYETTE COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



25 



FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

The valley of the Olentangy and. thosn of the Scioto and its 
branfihes, in Franklin county, present numerous exanaples of pre- 
historic eaiihwoi-ks. Mounds are very numerous, particularly 
along the Seioto in the southern half of tlie county, while there 
are a number of enclosures, village sites, burials, etc. A total of 
186 works have been recorded in the county. Among the more in- 
tei-esting of tbe enclosures are those along the Seioto and Olen- 
tangy rii'ers in Perry and Sharon townships. 

Several mounds originally stood on the site of Coliunbus and 
nimierous burials liave been unearthed in exca\'ations incident to 
the progi-ess of the city. The trails connecting the Lake Erie 
country with the Ohio river passed near the site of Columbus, and 
several Indian towns were located near the junction of the Scioto 
and Olentangy rivers. 






J 



ANCIENT WORt^ 

F'ranA/in County, Ohio. 



^oo ^ee^T 




^^mm.p^^ 



Earthworks uear Worthington. 



FRA?JKLIN COPNTT. 



Townships. 


la' 

■a 

c 
a 
o 


UQ 

s 

•3 

c 


en' 

in 

V 

1 

> 


(A 


3 

•s 
6 


1 




[ 

2 
2 

7 
lo 

21 

5 

1! 
I 

7 

2 

5 

5 

M 

6 

ZS 
8 






























I 
I 

3 
1 






Frankhii 


I 
1 
6 

5 
I 

3 


I 




































I 


6 


I 








Plain 












Mifflin 


r 


I 


















I 

7 
2 


2 


5 














I 


I 
2 


















Total 


132 


28 


6 


20 


I 


187 




^ 'f 




Group ot EnclosTires near Dublin. 



25 



UNION 




FRANKLIN COUNTY 

-I Scale, ona inch equals three miles 



26 



FULTON COUNTY. 

Fulton t^oimty eoutaiiis more prehistoric works than any 
other of the northwestern Ohio counties. Altho it has few large 
streams, the topography is such that the county is comparatively 
well drained, the mean ele-\-ation being greater than that of ad- 
jacent counties. On the broad level tablelands of the central por- 
tions of the county i>rehistoric remains are fairly abundant, 
particidarl}- in Pike and Chesterfield township. 

In Pike township, on the headwaters of Bad creek, there are 
12 mounds, which practically form a group. The coimty has six 
recorded enclosures and 45 moimds, the total recorded earthworks 
being 64. 



FOLTON" COUNTY. 



Townships. 


r/i 

1 


1 


'Ji 

> 


lit 

Is 
m 


in 

1 




2 
6 


I 


I 


I 

3 

2 














6 
I 

4 

2.5 
2 


3 
I 








I 








3 

2 






'I 












V 


















Totals i . . ; . . 


45' 


6 


2 


II 


64 





26 



MICHIGAN 




HENRY 



FULTON COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



27 



GALLIA COUNTY. 

Topographically, Gallia county is too rugged to afford attrac- 
tive conditions for aboriginal occupation of a settled or pei-manent 
character. With the exception of the townships liordering on the 
Ohio river, tlie evidence indicates only temporary occupation and 
consequently few earthworks. One monnd and a village site are 
recorded in Raccoon township; one mound at Mills, Springfield 
township, and a mound and a rock shelter in Cheshire township. 
With these exception the works lie near the Ohio River. 

The most important group of works is located in Ohio town- 
ship, adjacent to the river. This group consists of six mounds 
and four enclosures. An important aboriginal trail ci-ossed 
Gallia coimty, coming from the Scioto trail in Pickaway county, 
and crossing into West Vii'ginia. 

G.4LLIA COTJNTT. 













I-.' 








in 






4-1 




Townships. 




1- 
S 




in 








a 


s 


M 


a 




tn 




g 




3 


!3 


X 


o 




^ 


W 


> 


CQ 


ai 


H 




I 
I 




I 












1 








2 






Clay 


I 




I 








I 






I 








I 












Ohio 


6 


4 






















II 


4 


3 


2 


r 


21 







28 



GEAUGA COUNTY. 

Geauga county, so far as inTestigation has disclosed, is very 
sparse in prehistoric I'cmains. Those which have come to light 
are confined to the southeni portions of the coimty, and consist of 
two mounds, one cemetery and four burials. 

Parkman township has one mound, one cemetery and a linrial, 
Russell township oue mound, and Bainbridge, Aulnirn and Troy 
each a burial. 

The rough surface of the county, which, topographically, is 
more rugged than any other northeastern Ohio county, apparently 
was not conducive to permanent aboriginal settlement, and its 
prehistoric population doubtless was of a transient or periodic 
nature. 



GEAUGA COUNTY. 



Townsliips. 


1/} 

B 

o 

t — 1 


■c 


1' 

4-1 

6 


1 




I 
I 




I 




Russell 








































2 


4 


I 


7 





28 



COUNTY 



GEAUGA COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 




29 



GREENE COUNTY. 

The piiiicipal eartliwork of Greene county is an euclosnre lo- 
cated near Cedarville, on the South Fork of Massie's creek. This 
work consists of a double line of parallel embanluiients, with gate- 
ways at intervals, each of which was supplied ^vith a small stone 
moimd, set midway l>etweeu the emhankancnts. These embank- 
ments, together with the natnral cliff present on the east of the 
works, and the creek on tlie north, rendered the area thus enclosed 
\^cry difficult of approach, and the ivoi'k i.s I'egarded as typical 
of the so-called fortifications or military defenses. 

Several minor enclosures are fomid in central Greene county, 
and moimds are quite munerons, particularly in the southwestern 
portion. 

A total of 84 eai'thworks of the various classes are recorded 
in the county. 

GREENE COUNTY. 















Townships. 


tn 


3 


m 








■a 


S 


be 


'A 


VI 




3 


\f 


i^ 


u 


s 




o 


c 


.^^ 




o 




^ 


Ui 


> 


" 


H 




5 




I 


4 

2 














12 






3 

3 
I 






IS 

4 
8 










I 








4 
3 










IZ 


I 








2 










2 
















1 




5l 


8 


2 


13 


84 





/^iW'tf'l'^ii'iw'in 



mwM*^** 



.Vn' 



,,j.^(i,>^'"r''''*''^*^«ii"'*'''W'VWU"'"''.i.tEii«'ii^"' 




ANCIENT WOf^K 
Gteene. Cooff/y, OA/a. 



330 F£Mr 



29 




C O U N 



T Y 



GREENE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



30 



GUERNSEY COUNTY. 

Guernsey county, with its rugged topography, its few streams 
and naiTow valleys did not offer "very favorable conditions for 
aboriginal settlement and therefore is sparse in numbei' of earth- 
works. Elc^■en mounds have been recorded in the county, besides 
an enelosiu-e, a cemetery and a village site. Monroe township 
leads with six mounds, Millwood has thi-ee, and Liberty one. 
Desi^ite the relative scarcity of earthworks, many fine archae- 
ological specimens of flint, stone and other materials have been 
found in the county, showing at least a temporary or transient 
oeeupation of considerable importance. 



GUERNSEY COITNTY. 



Townships. 


rA 

c 

3 
O 


1 

a 
W 


in 

u 

HJ 

> 


■c 

u 
5 


1 




I 

7 






I 














I 









Oxford 




[ 








3 


















Totals 


II 


I 


I 


1 


H 











( 




30 












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p '^s^^^Pk^^'^^^ ^ " '^'W Scale, one Inch equals three miles 






NOBLE 









31 



HAMILTON COUNTY. 

This county oceiipying the extreme southwestern corner of 
Ohio is one of the richest areheologieally in the state. TTpwai'ds 
of 200 earthworks of the various types have been noted, prin- 
cipally in the valley of the Little Miami, in Columliia, Spencer 
and Anderson townships. 

One of the most interesting of the enclosures is that located 
on the south side of the Little Miami, in Anderson township, near 
the eastern boundary of the county. This complex enclosure con- 
siets of a combination of circles, parallel liues, etc., with numerous 
mounds within and contiguous to the circles. The larger of the 
two principal circles alone contains 11 mounds within its walls. 
Another knportant enclosure is that situated in Miami township 
on tlie east bank of the Miami river. It is somewhat irregularly 
triangiilar in shape, with several momids and a village site nearby. 

The site of the city of Cincinnati was once practically covered 
with aboriginal eai-thworks. Near the center of the cit>- there 
existed an elliijttcal enclosure, while three others of lesser pro- 
jtortions. besides several mounds, a viUage site and burials were 
to be seen when the neighborhood was first settled. 

One of the most remarkable of prehistoric village sites is 
that located near Madison^ulle, in Columl)ia township. This site 
is located on the terrace overlooking the Little Miami nver to 
the southeast, and has yielded a great quantity of material illus- 
trative of the life of its aboriginal inhabitants. 




FOf^TiriED HILL 
Hamilton County, Ohio. 

TOO ^eer 



V~ 



HAMn,TON COTJNTy. 



Townships. 


c 

g 


c 


> 


•c 

3 


Totals. 




3 

lO 

4 
?, 
() 

2 
6 
I 












2 
1 


2 


I 






































4 

3 

! 

4 
5 


t 


3 


















28 

8 

61 


2 
2 

10 


r 

4 
8 


















132 


20 


17 


17 


186 








Walls and Gateway — Miami Fort. 



31 




HAMILTON COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



32 



HANCOCK COUNTY. 

Hanroek county, so far as is known, contains two enclosures, 
4 mounds, 3 village sites and six burials. One enclosure is situated 
in Blanehard towmsliip and the other near Jenera, in Van Buren 
towniship. There are two mounds in Union, one in Pleasant and 
one in Albert township. 

The surface of Hancock county, lieing rather low and very 
level, was not particularly well suited to permanent aboriginal 
settlement, altho the great number of small objects found on the 
surface indicate an extensive periodic or transient occupation of 
its territory. 



HANCOCK COUNTY. 





















3 






Townships. 


■a 


J3 


4-< 


en 






a 


S 


SP 


a 


<A 




3 

o 


n 


5 








;s 


m 


> 


m 


t-' 




1 












[ 






I 








I 


3 


I 












2 






2 












I 
















2 
















4 


2 


3 


6 


15 





32 



WOOD 



CO U N T Y 




HANCOCK COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



H A R P I N 



CO U N T y 



33 



HARDIN CODNTY. 

Atln) sliai-iiig tlic distinction of the bordering county, Han- 
cock, of being tlie levelest two coimtios of the state, Hardin county 
presents decidedly more evidence of 2Ji"ebistoric activity. This 
is due perliaps to the comity's nioi'o strategic position on the 
"waterslied, as a i)oi'tage Ijetween iho Scioto and Miami, and the 
streams running into Lalie Erie and to the somewhat higher eleva- 
tion of its surface. 

A total of 44 sites have been noted in the county, including 
two enclosures, 20 mounds, and 20 burials. The county is re- 
markable for tlie latte:', as in almost e^'e^y gravel bed there are 
foimd buiials. 

Thei'e is a group of four mounds near Forest in Jackson 
township, while the reinainiug sites are scattered generally 
throughout the county with the exception of the extreme north- 
western portion which is I'ather sparse in remains. Goshen and 
Dudle}' townships each have one enclosure. 



HAEDOr COUNTr. 









tn 














V 












M 


*j 




(O 




Townsliijjs. 


fA 


£ 

p 


u5 










-a 




o 


ui 


<u 






c: 


S 


be 


a 




i/i 




o 




m 






S 
o 




.-'. 


W 


> 


P3 


U 


t- 




I 














4 

3 

I 
I 
I 


















r 
5 








I 
















r 


2 

2 

3 
3 
I 






McDonald 








2 










BuGk 














I 












2 


I 




2 


I 




Hale . 


4 






t 


















20 


2 


I 


20 


I 


44 





33 




UNION 



HARDIN COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



34 



HARRISON COUNTY. 

The few earthworks found in Harrison county are located in 

the northwestern portion, on Oonotton and Little Stillwater 
creeks. They consist of two mounds, a stone grave and a hurial 
in Monroe township; a village site ia Franklin and a village site 
in Washington. The county generally is very rough with few 
large streams or wide valleys. 

An important aboriginal trail, leading from the Ohio river 
near Steubenville, to the Muskingum at Wills town, crossed Har- 
rison county. 



HAERISON COUNTY. 













to 

V 

5; 














ra 






Townships. 




m 
u 


y] 










C 
3 
Q 


M 


re 

'u 


a 
o 








s 


> 




t/} 


H 




2 


I 
I 


r 


r 








Washington 
























2 


2 


I 


r 


6 







34 



CARROL 




SUERN5EY CO. B E 



C O U N T y 



HARRISON COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



35 



HENRY COUNTY. 

Henry comity has the distinctioD of being the only county in 
the state which, so far as can be learned, has no mounds or other 
earthworks proper. The only evidences of aboriginal occupation 
of the county which have come to light, aside from minor arti- 
facts found on the surface, are two burials, located on the Mainnee 
river, near Napoleon. 

HENEY COUNTY. 



Townsliips. 



Napoleon . 
Totals 



.2 



35 




P U T N A M 



C U N T Y 



HENRY COUNTY 



Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



36 



HIGHLAND COUNTY. 

One of the most interesting of the so-called "Hill-top Torti- 
fications" in the state, is that situated on Baker's Fork of Brush 
Creek, in the southeastern portion of Highland eountr. This 
great enclosure, which is known as "Eort HiU" lies but a few 
miles north of the famous Sei'pent Mound of Adams county, like- 
wise located on Brush creek. 

Port Hill was constructed by raising a Avail of stone and earth 
around the hrink of the hiU on which it is located, thus enclosing 
an area of 35 acres, elevated about 500 feet above the bed of the 
stream. The wall at the present time, averages from six to ten 
feet ia height 

Another interesting enclosure is that located in the southern 
portion of Concord township, consisting of a combination of a 
square and crescent. The county has a total of 61 recorded earth- 
works. 

HIGHiAND COTINTT. 









(n 












(U 










Ifl 


-f 






Townships. 


<Ji 


3 

s 
1 


C/J 








r-i 


y 

M 




1 




r'- 


w 


> 


m 


H 




4 












3 












1 












2 












8 












4 


I 










7 

I 


I 
















2 










I 




4 
4 
I 


I 

5 ■ 
I 


T 












4 


2 


I 










45 


1.3 


2 


I 


6i 








36 



COUNTY / 




ADAMS 



HIGHLAND COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



37 



HOCKmG COUNTY. 

One of the interesting archeolo^cal sites of Hocking emmty, 
is that Imown as Ash Cave, in Benton township. This cave is 
one of tlie more important of the few foimrl in Ohio which show 
indications of use hy ahorigines for shelter pnvposos.. It is more 
in the nature of a large depression worn into the sandstone bliifE 
by the elements and could hardly Ije considered as a cave proper; 
nevertheless it apjiears to have furnished satisfactory slielter for 
the aborigines for a considerable period of time, judging from the 
great deposits of ashes, from which the cave takes its name. These 
ashes have yielded considerable evidence hearing upon the source 
of food supplies and the manner of living of the occupants. 

The three euelosuies of the county are located in Salt creek 
township. Thert? ai'e scattering mounds throughout the county, 
particularly in the southern poi-tion. 

HOCKING COTTXTT. 



Townships. 


Mounds. 


EI 

s 


in 

1 


in 
U 

■c 

u 
-4-1 

V 

S 

6 


ID 

V 

U 

Pi 



H 


Salt Creek 


3 

2 


3 


I 








Perrj' 












I 
















I 






1 
I 

4 
3 
3 










Falls 




































Starr 




I 


z 












Totals 


17 


3 


3 


3 


1 


26 








fiaZA 




Section.. £. 




Section.' C. 



Enclosure, with Interior Mound, in Hocking County. 





i 






37 

1 




COUNTY 






i/"^TT^~'r--T^i y^ 






ff^tfS^ 


1 




lt^'^^^^^S^^^'' ' ^T 






jfe^?^ — I 1 _ J't ^^W. '» i 1 






'^oJ -. /■ts,r^#^i 






L "^ ?: *r=L ^ i' Y ?' ®'* V^" Q' 












fo^vl^'. -^^^^sbj^r^'^^^ 'H^^^^^r^W^ vte^! 








'-V^L^ ■ COUNTY 
























I 








-;r^'" ■ "i ;■ {j>ni^~:m::\iKW '''■^^'M\rT4N-^t^^ 












*" ■^^^i-fc-- -iC ;/ y voi^l^^^ 'A^' 'fl-—€^^\^^^^\''^^''^f^ 






























fc*s^;ie&-*jjp' >!^ a ' ^r^ffc^^i^^^t " : "*-/Va^ li— 5*\!l /' S /^Aw-'-'-'V^C ■ r v # /X TV.-" 






ix^^Tx^^'^r :3"--^rW 7^^^?^m^^^w:>Hh^ /m_/'' '"^ 








1 


■ 




"r" 'F",r \/A- '^"1 W'^\~~f^7^^s,i-^-'\---t---i\ -^i'— ^m — fj_xw ' ; \a ; 






O ^)J^-f--r;/-.^ ' ^) \rV '^^5^ .1^ COUNTY "( 






'i'~" vT^-tV^^ hocking county 








" 


Scale, one inch equals three miles 





38 



HOLMES COUNTY. 

The center of aboriginal activity in Holmes county appears 
to have been in tlie western part of the county, along the Mohican 
river and its tributary streams. 

A number of mounds and several village sites are found in 
that district and scattering mounds and gravel burials through- 
out the county, but the only enclosure known in the county is that 
on Killbuck creek in Prairie township. Seventeen mounds have 
been located in Holmes county and a number of village sites, 
biirials, etc., which bring the total niunber of known monuments 
to 29. 

nOLMES COUNTY. 



Townships. 



§ 



^ 



I 

> 



'P 

3 

m 



O 



Washington . . 

Knox 

Richland 

Ripley 

Monroe 

Killbuck 

Prairie 

Hardy 

Mechanic . . . . 
Salt Creek . . . 

Berlin 

Paint 

Walnut Creek 
German 



2 

6 
I 

2 
I 

I 
I 



I 

2 



Totals 17 



29 



38 




COSHOCTON 



County 



HOLMES COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three mites 



39 



HURON COUNTY. 

The more important earthworks of Huron county are found 
in and near the city of Norwalk. These consist of four enclosures, 
two located within the city limits, and two a short distance to the 
southwest. One of the latter, located on a branch of the Huron 
river, has ^rithin its walls nine mounds. This work is circular in 
form, while the one to the northwest is triangular in shape with 
the corners of the triangle roimded. 

The two circular works which stood within the city of Nor- 
walk are interesting examples of enclosures. The entrance or 
gateway to the more westerly of these two cireidar enclosures is 
unique in form. Instead of a simple break in the wall where the 
gateway is located, the circle is so expanded that one end of the 
approaching wall is carried far beyond the opening, thus furnish- 
ing it with a barricade. 

There arc a few mounds, village sites, burials, etc., scattered 
mainly throughout the noi-them central portion of the county. 



HUKON COUNTY. 



TownKliijis. 


4 
1^ 




V 

> 


-a 
■n 

3 

M 


■1 

1 


Ridcefield 


1 


1 










I 
I 








I 


3 


I 
t 










t 




I 






2 
2 
















I 




















4 


4 


3 


6 


I? 






Earthworks at Norwalk. 



39 



o 

o 




CRAwrORO CO 



HURON COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



40 




Investigation of tlie shelters and mounds and of their con- 
tents, made ui 1905 by tlie Society disclosed that the population 
of the salt spi'inj? district was in groat part a transient one and 
that the various shelters and village sites mostly were inhaliited 
but temporarily. Tliis would indirate a constant movement to 
and from the salt district, wliich doubtless was a place of great 
importance in the aboi-igiual economy. 

More than 170 nu)unds have been located within t!ie county, 
while 22 village sites and sb: enclosures have been noted. 

JACKSON COUNTV. 



General view of the PetroglypllS iiciir Leo. 



JACKSON COUNTY. 



Jackson county is remai'kablc in several respects from an 
ai'chffiological viewpoint. It contains ujie of the most interesting 
peti'oglyph or rock picture groups iu the state; has many ex- 
amples of the so-called rock shelter type of aboriginal domiciles 
and has a great many burial mounds aud village sites. 

The petroglyphs, or rock pictures, are located near the village 
of Leo, in Jackson township, in the noi-thwestern part of the 
county. They are cut or pecked into the exposed surface of sand- 
stone near the head of a small stream, near the old ti-ail which 
led to the salt springs further south in the county. They consist 
of 37 distinct figures, representing birds, animals, serpents and 
the tracks of animals and human beings. 

The rock shelters of Jackson comity number about 30 ; more 
than are found in any other comity in the state. They are 
primarily recesses cut into the soft rock by the action of streams 
running at theii- bases. From time to time the shifting of the 
beds of these streams left the recesses available as shelters for the 
aboriginal peoples of the district who made free use of them for 
that pui-pose. In the accumulation of ashes and refuse mthin 
and around these sheltei'S, much material has been found pertain- 
ing to the life of their inhabitants. 

The great number of moimds within the county, as well as 
the extensive occupation of rock shelters, is in great part ac- 
counted for by the fact tliat Jaekson munty was the centre of a 
great prehistoric commercial activity. AI)origines from all di- 
rections flocked there to secure supplies of salt, which they ob- 
tained by boiling or evaporating the brine from the sprhigs and" 
headwaters of Salt creek. 



To\viislii]is, 


cri 

•a 

o 


1 

.S 
1 


8 

1 

1 

1 
1 

2 


ui 

p. 

■J 

u 

— f 

u 


I) 

'u 

1- 

Of 


u 
u 

2 
18 

3 
2 
t 


"3 






1 








6 

23 

43 
32 
II 
tS 
8 




Scioio 





















1 


.... 


Milton 




Lick 


2 

1 


? 






5 




PranHin 








Bloom fie Id 


1 








2 














3 




















Totals 


.73 


1 6 

1 


22 


I 


I 


30 


233 




Boone rock shcUcr at ilic bast of bluff. 



40 



= h-r,-,-~y.^'^_^ O N 







|LAWRENCe CO.,' 



JACKSON COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



41 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

A total of 26 prehistoric sites have been located in Jefferson 
county. Most of tliese sites are situated along tlie Ohio river, 
particularly in the southeastern portion of the county. The ex- 
ceptions are three mounds and an enclosure in Koss township. 

A petroglyph of the usual chai-aeter is located on the east 
side of the Ohio river, opposite Brown's Island, Island Creek 
township. 

Wells township has six mounds and two burials and Warren 
township has an enclosure, five mounds and one burial. The re- 
maining woi'ks are in Cross creek and Saline townships. 

JEPPEBSON COTJNTT. 



Townships. 



Ross 

Saline 

Island Creek 
Cross Creek 

Wells 

Warren 



Totals 



c 
o 
IS 



3 

2 



2 

6 
5 



i8 






W 



1 
> 



■c 






1 



26 



JEFFERSON COUNTY 

The PETROGI.VPH credited to Jefferson 
county properly belongs to West Virginia. 

This voids the second text pamgraph refer- 
rinj{ to Petrofrlyplis, and the correspondiuf; 
column in the table, making the total num- 
ber for Jefferson county 25. 



J COLUMBIANA 



JEFFERSON COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 




41 



42 



KNOX COUNTY. 

The 91 prehistoric sites in Knox county are flistributed gen- 
erally over its territory but are more niunerous adjacent to the 
larger streams. One of the more important groups is that in 
Wayne and Morris townships, pentoring ahout Frcdericktown. 
This group consists of a nmnber of circular enclosni'es, mounds, 
etc. 

Another impoi'tant group is located in Milford township, 
near the southern line of the county. The valley of the Mohican 
river, along the eastei'n horder, is rich in remains. 

The county contains the large number of 22 enclosures, many 
of which however, are small and uiJim]>ortant as compared with 
the works further south. A total of 67 mounds has been noted. 

KNOX COUNTY. 



Townships. 


■3 

c 

o 

% 


V. 

3 

c 
E4 


i 

1 

> 


in 

'u 

3 
03 


(A 
O 


Hilliar 


2 

7 
I 

9 

2 
I 

9 

7 
I 










Millford 


8 

2 

I 

6 

T 
I 
















Miller 

Pike 




I 






r 

T 

7 

2 

s 

\ 

4 
































I 






Gay 








2 
















Butler 


I 
















Totals 


f,y 


22 


I 


I 


91 





Simr' 




I'lan of Cemetery Momul. Mt. Vernon, 







if*— jp (^r- 

■t. . < I ! P * I- 

hi, i i i Km 

Section of Cemetery Mound, Mt. Vernon. 



42 




C U N T V 



KNOX COUNTY 

Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



43 



LAKE COUNTY. 

Lake county contains four enclosures, six mounds and a vil- 
lage site. The important aboriginal trail which followed the 
southeru shore of Lake Erie, passed through Lake county, so that 
wliile the existing evidences of prehistoric man are only mod- 
erately abundant, the territory within the county doubtless played 
an important part in prehistory times. 

Of the four enclosures, two are in Leroy township, -one' in 
PeiTy and one in Willoughby. Of particular interest is the en- 
closure occupying the point of land at the juncture of Paine creek 
with the Grand river. It is irregular in ioxui, occupies a strong 
position and is of the so-called defensive type of structure. 



LAKE COTTNTT. 







Ul 


in 




Townsliips. 


vi 


V 


m 






■a 




a 






a 


o 


W 


irt 




o 

\ — r 


^ 


rt 


i 




^ 


w 


> 


H 




I 


I 








2 

3 












- 






1 


\ 








2 














Totals 


6 


4 


I 


J J 







43 




LAKE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



CO U N T Y 



44 



LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

As is usual in most otlier coimties siiriilarly situated, the 
earthworks of Lawi'euce county are eoniiaed mostly to the tier of 
townships bordering the Ohio river. The topography of the in- 
tei'ior of the county is rough and unsuited to primitive occupa- 
tion. 

The priiicii)al features are the petroglyphs, wliicli are located 
near the mouth of Buffalo creek and just below Ironton, i-espee- 
tively. These petroglyi^hs were typical of the Obio river and 
altho quite plain wben first noted by early settlers, have prac- 
tically disappeared as a result of erosion and other natural causes. 

Flint diggings and two stone graves have been found in 
Elizabeth to^vnship; two mounds and a village site in Hamilton 
township; two mounds in Upper; sis mounds in Perry; eight 
moimds in Payette ; two mounds ta Union and one mound in Rome 
to^vnship. 



LAWKENCE COUNTY. 













VI 










dS 


to 


u 




Townships. 


^ 




0) 

1* 




t 
a 






o 





> 


@ 

in 


iZ 


f/3 

1 










2 


2 






2 

2 


1 


I 












Perry 


6 














S 














2 

I 


. 
































Totals 


21 


2 


I 


2 


2 


28 







45 



LiciOKu oou:nty. 



ucKisa cou^TV. 



i- ^ 



Licking is one of the richest counties in ttie state from an 
ai-clieulogicai \iewpuint. its iniportaucc lies in several direc- 
tions, jNot only does it contain the greatest suui-ce of material 
used in the mwldug ot abongiual tiiut iiuplemeuts — i^'lhit Kidge 
— but also one of tUe linest examples of the complex type of earin- 
works, that known as tHe Newai'i;: works. fJesides these features, 
two of the few so-called ehig)' works are located in the county. 
One is the Oppos.simi Mound, sometimes called the Alligator 
Alound, which lies near Granville and the other the so-called iJird 
Alomid located within the earthwoi'ks of the Newark group. 

The county is rich in mounds aud enclosures and aifords ex- 
amples of practically every type of these two classes. A group 
of peti'oglyplis fonnerly existed a few miles east of the city of 
M evvark. 

Thus it is seen that the county contains examples of all im- 
portant classes of eai'thworks founil in Ohio aud is in itself typical 
of the state as a whole. 

Flint Ridge, as its name suggests is a natural ridge wherein 
the flint i-equii-ed hy the alwriguies \\as found. This great ridge 
extends from a point a few miles southwest of Newark, almost to 
Zanesville in Muskingum county. Numerous pits are to be seen 
from which the iimt was taken for the manufacture of flint knives, 
arrow and speai' points and other weapons aud implements. Ma- 
terial from these iJits is found scattered for hundreds of uiilea 
in every dii'ection, showing that it was highly valued aud exten- 
sively sought. 

The famous Newark Worlts are too well known to require a 
detailed description. They covered a groat part of the present 
city of Newark and tei'ritory to the west aud south of the city. 

They consisted of combinations of squares aud cu'cles, 
parellel walls and crescents with many mounds within or ad- 
jacent thereto. One of these circles is located in the Licking 
County fair grounds and is well preserved. 

The Oppossum Mound, located about one mile east of Oran- 
\alle occupies the top of a prominent elevation overlooking Rac- 
coon valley. The figure is about 250 feet long and 4 feet in height 
at the highest i>omt. 

In the more southerly of the two large circles comprising the 
New^ark works, is tlie so-called bird niouud. The dimensions of 
the mound as gi^-en by Squier & Davis in their Ancient Monu- 
ments were as follows: Length of body 155 ft.; of each wing 110 
ft. ; between the tops of the wings 200 ft. ; width of bird (i-S ft. ; of 
wings in center 45 ft. ; of same next to body 40 ft. ; lieight of 
moimd composing the body 7 ft. ; of mounds composing the wings 
5 ft. The head of the bird points directly toward the entrance to 
the enclosure. 



Townships. 


E 


1 


33 


'u 




in 

& 
s- 

4-1 


u 

■n 
I. 

M 

3 

at 

.s 


f/1 


Hartfori! 




1 

"1 

1 ■■ 
















I 
2 


I 











Jersey 

Lima 


1 






_ ^ . . . . 












IJeniiinglon 




1 








Lilierty 


1 
12 

7 

lO 

6 
20 

'7 
io 

.1 

6 

iS 

34 








3 




























4 
I 
I 

5 
2 

4 
1 
2 

1 






1 




















McKean 
















I 




I 




















I 






































I 












Mary Ann 












2 




T 








3 
2 

3 
3 




1 




Howling (Ireen 












[ 




















76 
















Totals 


225 


36 


9 


2 


2 


I. 


77 


352 






Earthworks at Newark. 



45 




LICKING COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



46 



r ■ 



LOGAN COUNTY. 

A remarkable group of fifteen mounds on the southeast side 
of Lewistowii resevoii' characterizes the archeolog}- of Logan 
county. These mounds are located at the source of the Great 
Miami river, the course of which as it extends southward through 
the coimty is quite freely supijlied with mounds and burials. 

There are a total of 59 sites in Logan county, divided as fol- 
lows: one enclosure, 33 mounds and 25 burials. A number of 
mounds and graves are found along the Mad river, in the southern 
part of the county. 



LOGAN COUNTY. 



Townships. 


4 

c 

3 
O 


Enclosures, 


.5 


Totals. 




2 

2 

II 




























3 

6 . 






4 
7 














1 
1 

2 

4 
1 

4 








I 




Lake 
























I 
1 

2 














I 

2 












Totals 


.13 


1 


25 


59 





46 




LOGAN COUNTY 

Scate, one Inch equals three miles 



47 



LORAIN COUNTY. 

The more interesting ot tlie prehistoric works of Lorain 
county are found in Sheffield tnwnship and are in the foi"m of 
enclosures. One of these is located on the right bank of BlacU 
river and the other on French creek, a tributary. The fonner is 
in the form of a square, with the river forming one of the four 
sides, the side parallel to and opposite that foimed by the river 
having a gateway in the center. The work on French creek is 
in the form of a crescent, across the neck of a high point of land, 
the remaining sides of which are rendered difficult of access by 
the creek itself and the deep gulleys of small tributary streams. 

There are 34 sites in the county, including two rock shelters 
or cave-like dondciles in Elyria township ; a petroglyph in Am- 
herst and five eudosm-es and 17 mounds in the various townships. 




ICffAIN CO. 0. 



IX)UAIN COUNTY. 



Townships. 


Mounds, 


Enclosures. 


a 

en 
> 




1 


"HJ 
t/] 

u 

Q 


•a 

1 




4 
I 
I 
I 
6 
I 


I 












Camden 












Brighton 


1 












1 










Wellington 














Pittsfield 






















! 






Sheffield . . , 


2 

I 


2 
2 


t 


4 
4 










2 








Totals 


17 


5 


I 


8 


t 


2 


34 






tVORKS I ft 

LORAIN Ca Q 




LORAIN COUNTY 

Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



47 



-ASHLAND 



COUNTY 



1 



48 




LUCAS COUNTY. 

"Turkeyfoot Rock" is probalily the best kuowii Arelieol- 
ogical remain in Ijiicas county. This m a, large boulder which Has 
along the public liighway a short distance above Maunice, at what 
is known as Presqne Isle, and into which had Ijeen cut a numl)er 
of imitations of bird tracks. These resemble the tracks of the 
wild turkey, fi-om which the rock takes its name. 

The most interesting earthwork in the county is the em-losure 
which existed at the southern bordei" of the county, on the eastern 
bank of the Maumee river. This enclosure was crescent shaped, 
with the opening toward the river and bordering it. It enclosed 
about thi'ee acres of ground. 

Lucas county has sixteen prehistoric sites, ten of which are 
mounds. 

LirCAS COUNTY. 









(0 




lA 








w 


.« 




■5 




Townslii[is. 


1 


.5* 


Village S 


in 

IS 

ca 




1 












I 




Adams 


4 
1 










Oregon 


1 


2 










5 




I 


I 












Totals 


TO 


1 


3 


I 


I 


i6 








>^onKs nena Toledo, n 



48 



C H I G A N 

'nr*"ik:jtL 



L A K C 




LUCAS COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



49 



MADISON COUNTY. 

Twelve mounds have been recorded in Madison county, be- 
sides one cemetery and seven burials. Prehistoric sites are not 
abundant in the county but are widely distributed. 

Fi'om tiie abuudance of stone and flint implements fonnd in 
the coxmty, it appears to have been a favorite hunting ground for 
the primitive hunters. 

Jefferson township has five mounds, Monroe and Union two 
each, with one each for Deer Creek, Union and Oak Run town- 
ships. 



MADISON COTJJITY. 



Townships- 


■3 




•n 

u 


o 






3 








2 

5 
I 

2 

I 
1 








2 








I 
















Pl^a^anf - - - 


2 














Totals 


12 


7 


I 


20 

















^ 
















[UNION COUNTY 

^1 / F' w^_t^ E |/ VH~r"^'%r~:/^"i^^i^--/- ill x\ii 


1 

49 




< ■wT^p^Ay^'"' x^ 


^ci=* # ,'-^"*^"^''^ Jvl ll V 






'^ |J-^^**C,,,,^^9^fe 'S^ / 1 i^^Vt' ^^^^— i 


^^^ ^^^Cj— ^'^-^ 






s iV / yv\?^^r^ ^^ 1^ ^^'"^ * f* A7/l!!^i^&-A 






1 Ir^ z' '^\ /' \ fl v®L \ ^ 1 '^\^" t 






"^ -4^^. vl V / [\ ^.-''1^''===. ~ s ^^-—\dL 






^ ' \\ ^v > V^ / jn'^"^"^^'^ ^'^'^^ :r=^^^~~Tl 








■^"^ V ^^'^^^fe;^^— -j^ [^ ^ 








dfKVZ -A,,.5^ ^. 






^ L^^ If JT^ 7^ ^ . /' X:'"":^^ ^^-L^\ 




MADISON COUNTY 






Scale, one inch equals three miles 




























.^ T^'^■^'isE.-,_i^ / X Tk*Jr 1 \^^ } -^J^"^^^/^"^ \' t - \ r^T^ i" Jh m ft i 






' ^ ^^^^=^^^;ti«_^ / ^-T^ \ ir irf'^^^^ -.\^X -T.'-' \ _ri^TW^,i-** M ft ft I 






i 1,1 ^T^r^-^ ■^■^JBLx VTw^^'^V^ r'^^^^Sric^-VT ' . - '/ V^ \* z 












.^-rr- jA^^T^^^^*^ . W ^^^''^^^ztL^- - 












^L=?^^^rr--n if Z ^^^f^^i f-^l^"* #^4* Vyi < 


. 




w'ol--^^l ^ /i'~~-- J ■■"« -i/v " Uv 


■t*»JK "T^"^ N 


F A JjfR F|TftC.L_lf' ', ^ 






-^r^'^^ap-^^^ 


K^ r= 




^ /^^l! — < / "^ 
J / ..,.JT a .vTSS^ * ; 1 * 


1* 
1 


TO^^^r 






r '°r 




MB^^^^'^^^Bs^ l^^M?^" 




kllTll'r 




fe$(trcs^^fe^- 


Id ■"- 






Hi — -rrkil ' \ rl^^^i^ \3kJr ■- ^iV v>%« . .1 


(X^\ V, \J " 




1 \ \ L-^JE>?i ^ 


ot^ 


L — IJ 




jL. rT/>C^^W^n"--^- 


j\ ^hj^ 


\ \ ^-./'^""''9/^FiA 1 'J 






'^A~y , rTr'^'^'^^^''^^~:^~>J'^\__ 


i-^W" If' 






----'■ i-iJ?/_.£i'-'SH 




- 


COUNTY , 





50 



MAHONIK^G COUNTY. 

Two ' mounds, two cemeteries, two village sites and a flint 
quarry comprise tlie prehistoric sites recorded in Mahoning 
county. Smith township contains a mound and a flint quarry; 
Austintowu, two cemeteries and a village site and Youngstown 
a mound and a village site. 

The old Mahoning trail, which entered Ohio from the east, 
followed the course of the Mahoning river through the county. 



MAHONINa COUNTY. 



Townships. 


4 


in 
V 

> 


Cemeteries. 


Flint puairies. 


U3 

1, 

f2 




I 






I 






I 
I 


2 





Yoiitiestown 


I 
















Totals 


2 


2 


2 


r 


7 





50 




~mn[ 



COLUMBI/INA 



C O U N T Y 



MAHONING COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



51 



MABIOK COTTN'TT. 

The valleys of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers in Marion 
eoimty fui'nish. typical remains of the aljoi'igines of Ohio. While 
not numerous, practically every section of the county exhibits 
somethmg in the way of earthworks, burial sites, or village sites. 
However, no enclosures have been recorded in the county, an un- 
usual feature in a section so well represented in other evidences 
of prehistoric occuption. 

There are many burials in the county, practically every 
gravel bank along the two principal streams having been iitilized 
as burial places. One of these latter at Waldo, in Waldo town- 
ship, has yielded many skeletons, as has also that near Prospect, 
on the Scioto river. 

The county has a total of 43 sites, 17 of which are mounds 
a like number of burials and the remainder village sites and 
cemeteries. 



MAfilON COUNTY. 



Townships. 


U3 

1 


S3 
tn 

u 

1 

> 




u 


in 

1 




I 










Salt Rock 




I 

2 








2 

I 


I 

2 

I 
I 




















Big: I-sland 


2 

3 
I 


2 

3 
2 

3 


























4 
3 








I 


3 
I 


I 
r 




\Valdo 












Totals 


I? 


6 


17 


2 


42 





51 



C O U N T Y 



C RAWFO R D 



C O U N T Y 



W Y A N D T 







<^ U H T Y 



MARION COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



52 



MEDINA COUNTY. 

Medina county has nine mounds and two enclosures, as far 
as recorded. One enclosnre, located near Weymouth, Medina 
township, is a good example of the so-called forts or defensive 
works; the other enclosure, near the town of Granger is of the 
circular type. 

Three of the nine mounds are located in Medina township, 
two in York and one each in Hinckley, Montville, Westfield and 
Guilford townships. 

MEDIXA COUNTY. 







S 




Townships. 


4 


L. 
1 


Ul 




g 


■d 


s 






fS 


Q 




r 






York 


2 

3 








I 






[ 






T 
1 














1 














9 


2 


II 







52 



COUNTY 




MEDINA COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



53 



MEIGS COUNTY. 

The fine examples of rock pictogi-aphs, or petroglyphs, sit- 
uated near the town of Saxon, are the featui-e of tlic archeology 
of Meigs county. Tliese petroglj^phs, of which there are two 
grou]>s, were located and examined by the Museum staff in 
August, 1913, and are described here for the first time. 

The pictographs, or picture writings as they are sometimes 
termed, are cut, pecked, or ground into the horizontal surface of 
the sandroek which forms the bed of the river at that point. The 
level of the surface, hearing the pictures is barely aliove low water 
marlc, so that tlie;^ are exposed only when the ri\^er is at low stage. 

Picture writing as practiced by the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Ohio, Imd not i-eached a stage of development sufficiently ad- 
vanced, which at this late date, would make it possible to translate 
its characters into ideas. These characters doubtless bad a mean- 
ing which was entirely local or personal in its nature and which 
was intelligible only to those who made them and were familiar 
with the events to which they referred. Tims, as a source of his- 
torical information, the value of the petroglypbs is limited. 

The principal group of petroglyphs at Saxon covers an area 
of upwards of an acre, while a secondary group of less importance 
is situated a short distance above. The rock pictures represent 
birds, animals, hiunan beings, the tracks or footprints of all these, 
besides niunerous unknown and jjartly obliterated figures. Among 
the animals depicted, those which can be readily distinguished 
are the bear, deer and panther; the turtle, fish and serpent and 
several kinds of birds. 

Many of the figures at Saxon already have been wholly or 
partly obliterated by the action of ice and gravel floes which grind 
over them during times of high water or floods. Only where the 



rock into which they were cut happens to be of a ferruginous 
nature, and tiius tpiite hard, are the pietui-es well preserved. With 
the pictures so inaccessible and visilile only at infrequent inter- 
vals, and with theii- destruction only a matter of a short time, the 
Society feels itself fortunate in having secured some of the best 
of these petroglyphs, which were cut from their bed in the rock 
and are now on exhibition at the Museiun. 

Adjacent to the petroglypbs there are several moimds, while 
on the West Virginia side there are nimierous works and an ex- 
tensive prehistoric village site. 

Other petroglyphs, located just above Racine, formerly were 
visible, but at the present tinu; have l)een practically obliterated. 

In the A'icinity of Racine tlicre are seven mounds and a mun- 
ber of stone graves. Tliere ha\e liecn noted in the county a tot-al 
of 27 mounds, 3 groups of petroglyphs, one village site and 2 stone 
graves. 

MEIGS COUNTY. 



Townships. 


4 

g 


Village Sites. 


rn 
> 

s 
o 

V 

c 
□ 

in 


in 

J3 

0^ 


in 
1 




2 

I 

7 

10 

5 

3 
































1 


2 


I 

2 




Letart 






















Totals 


27 


1 


2 


3 


3.1 





53 




MEIGS COUNTY 

Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



54 



MERGER COUNTY. 

Five enclosures, one mound and 4 liurials comprise tlie pre- 
historic sites of Mei'cer eounty. One of the principal enclosures 
of the county is situated near the western border, just north of 
old Ft. Recovery. Three others ai"e on St. Marys river in Dublin 
and Union townships, and the fifth enclosure lies at the northwest 
comer pf Grand reservoir. 

The old trail leading from the headwaters of the Mamnee 
near Fort "Wayne to the Indian villages on the Scioto, passed 
.through Mercer county. The onl\' mound so far known is in Gilj- 
son township. 

MEKCER COUNTY. 







W 






Townships. 


4 


g 


tA 






o 

•a 


s 


re 

'u. 


o 




I 










I 


I 








2 

I 


I 














I 










I 














I 


5 


4 


lO 







54 



VAN WERT 



c u N T r 




MERCER COUNTY 

Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



55 



MIAMI COUNTY. 

With two fine sti'eams passing through the county— the 
Miami and Stillwater rivers — Miami county was well adapted as 
a place of abode for aboriginal peoples. 

The Miami valley is dotted with preliistoi'ic sites, which oc- 
cur in greatest number about Piqua. In Washington township 
alone, in which Piqua is situated, 11 enclosures have been j-e- 
corded. In Spring Creek township, across the river, are several 
others. 

A total of 9(> sites have been recorded i» the county, consist- 
ing of 15 enclosures, 22 mounds, 35 village sites and 24 burials. 

MIAMI COUNTY. 



Townships. 


4 

a 

Q 


HI 

u 

3 

B 

1 


cn 

> 


r/L 

is 

'C 


O 




2 
I 


I 


8 

2 

4 
5 


3 
3 
1 
1 














8 

2 


ji 












I 

5 

5 
I 

2 
I 

I 


3 
8 
1 
I 

2 
I 






4 
I 


3 




























Bethel 


4 












Totals 


22 


15 


35 


24 


96 






55 



SHELBY 




MIAMI COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



56 



MONROE COUNTY. 

Monroe county has but five prehistoric sites of record. These 
consist of 2 mounds in Salem township, 3 burials in Ohio township 
and one mound in Lee township. 

The topography of the county is rough and indications of 
prehistoric habitation are confined mostly to the vicinity of the 
Ohio river. 

MONBOE COUNTY. 





Townships. 


-s" 


trt 








c 


ra 


w 






,^ 


■c 

3 


^ 






^ 


eq 


H 




2 






Ohio 


2 






I 














Totals 


3 


2 


5 





56 




MONROE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



.y 



57 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

The largest moimd in Ohio is the so-called Miamishurg 
Mound, taking its name from the town neai- which it is located. 
This gi'eat mound stands 68 feet in height and more than 800 feet 
in eireumfei'ence at the base. 

The valley of the Miami river, particularly below Dayton, is 
very rich in prehistoric remains. One of the moi'e interesting of 
these works is an enclosure of the complex type, situated six miles 
below Dayton at Alexanders^'ille, on the east bank of the Miami 
river. It is a comliination of a square and two crescents, or in- 
complete circles. Some writers have maintained that the cres- 
cents were intended ultimately to l)e eiicles and that therefore 
the work was abandoned before completion. The square encloses 
an area of about 35 acres with one of the circles somewhat smaller 
in area and the other somewhat greater. 

The county contains 111 preliistoric sites, consisting of 14 
enclosures, 76 mounds, 6 village sites, 3 cemeteries and 12 single 
hurials. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 



Townships. 


4 

a 
§ 


at 

u 
k- 

s 

1 


in 

> 


r- 

m 


■c 


in 

1 


Harrison 


I 

5 
4 

lO 

6 
4 
9 
6 
11 
iCi 
4 


1 ■ 
I 


I 
I 


2 

! 


I 












I 

2 
2 
7 




1 










I 
1 
1 


I 
S 








2 
















Totals 


76 


1-1 

7 


r, 


12 


3 


III 




ANCIENT WORKS 
Monti^omtry County Ohio. 



GCAL£ 



WOO /^££r 




^MCtosuRE 5 Ml. Bei.ow Davton, ' 



57 . 




BUTLER 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



58 



MORGAN COUNTY. 

Morgan county contains 42 prehistoric sites, consisting of one 
enclosure, 38 mounds, 1 \illage site, 1 cemetery and one single 
Ijurial. The enclosure is located in Windsor township, on the 
west bank of the Muskingum rivei*. The works are distributed 
generally along tlie Mnskuigmn, with a group of five mounds at 
Millgi'ove, at tbe month of Meigs creek and a few scatteriug sites 
in the western part of the county. 

Many archjEoIogit-al speeimena have been collected in Morgan 
county, both from the mounds and from the surface, particularly 
along the route of tlie old trail which followed the course of the 
Muskingum from its forks to its mouth. 

MOBQAN COUNTY. 























^ 








Townships. 


-a 




V 


O) 


•c 






s 


1 


M 




4-' 
E 


"a 
•-* 




s 


s 


•? 


3 
CQ 


a 





York 


2 














2 

2 

6 
10 

6 






I 


















' ' ' " 














I 


















2 














3 

5 














I 






1 














38 


t 1 


I 


1 


42 









58 



! " "^ S K , N G U M 




COUNTY 



MORGAN COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



59 



MORROW COUNTY. 

The earthworks of Morrow county are distributed along the 
courses of the Oleutangy ri^-er, Ahun creek and Owl creek. Pour 
of the five enclosures within the county are situated on Alura 
creek in Lincoln townships; the fifth enclosure is near the 
northern border of the county. A prehistoric cemetery is located 
in Lincoln township from which many skeletons have been un- 
earthed. 

MORROW COUNTY. 









ifi 












U 










tn 


■j-i 


Ul 




Townships. 


tfl 


3 


tn 








•a 




V 


V 


< 




c 
o 


q 


a 
> 


6 


o 




] 














I 


2 
I 
I 








6 














3 


4 


I 


1 






8 
I 

2 




















Peru . 






















21 


5 


5 


I 


32 





CRAWFORD 




59 



Knox 



MORROW COUNTY 



Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



30 



MUSKINGUM COUNTY. 

The eastern terminus of the famous Plint Ridge, which fur- 
nished the aborigines their supplies of material for making flint 
implements, is in Hopewell to^iaiship, Muskingum county, where 
a niunber of pits or diggings exist, from which material has been 
quarried. 

Hopewell township also contains two enclosures and a num- 
ber of moimds. The district adjacent to the Muskingum river 
in Muskingum county, is typical of the large streams of the state. 
A nimaber of moimds, enclosures and village sites comprise tlie 
works along the river. Most of the townships of the county con- 
tain prehistoric sites of some class. 

The county has a total of 87 sites, consisting of 18 flint quar- 
ries, 9 enclosures, 54 mounds, 3 village sites and 3 burials. 



MTTSKINGTIM COUNTY. 



Townships. 




V 
[- 
3 

a 

W 




in 

3 


I- 

.s 
E 


Totals. 




4 

5 

3 












Hopewell 


2 
I 
I 


I 


2 

I 


i8 




Cass 




Muskingum 






Falls 


3 

8 
I 

3 
2 

6 
I 
6 
r 
6 
3 
5 












2 














































2 


I 








Salem 










I 
































Rich Hill 












Blue Rock 




I 
















Totals 


54 


9 


3 


3 


i8 


87 





60 



COUNTY 



MUSKINGUM COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 




61 



NOBLE COUNTY. 

Noble comity, like tlie adjoining coimty of Monroe, is sparse 
in prehistoric sites. Rather rough topography and few large 
streams and valleys explain this restricted aboriginal occupation. 

There are three mounds in Seneca township on the head- 
waters of Seneca creek; 1 mound in Noble township; 2 mounds 
and 3 burials in Olive township and 2 mounds in Jackson town- 
ship. 



NOBLE COXTNTy. 



Townships. 


4 

a 
g 


■d 


H 
o 




3 
I 

2 
2 






Xoble 






Olive 


3 
















Totals 


8 


3 


1 1 







61 



C o U N T Y 




COUNTY 



W fi 5 HlNgTON 



NOBLE COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



62 



OTTAWA COUNTY. 

The most interesting feature of the archeology of Otta\\'a 
county are the petroglvphs on Kelleys Island, which altho a part 
of Erie county is included with Ottawa county for the sake of 
convenience. 

The most interesting of the Kelleys Island rock pictures are 
those located near the landing on the south side of the island. 
These jiictures are cut into a huge limestone rock, ^2 feet long, 
21 feet wide and 11 feet high which during the process of erosion 
by the waters of the lake has become detached from the strata 
forming the island. 

Another group of petroglyphs is found on the north side 
of the island, cut or pecked into a large granite boulder. 

Besides the peti-oglyphs, there are upon the island, two cres- 
cent enclosures and fourmoimds. Two bui'ials have lieen recorded 
on North Bass island. 

Catawba Island has two moxmds, a village site and a burial. 
The total number of prehistoric sites in Ottawa county, including 
Kelleys and North Bass Islands, is 25, composed of 2 petroglyphs, 
2 enclosures, 13 moimds, 3 village sites and 5 burials. 



OTTAWA COUNTY. 



Townships, 


4 

c 

§ 


1 


1 
(A 

u 

1 
> 


in 

■c 


0-1 


1 




I 






























r 
I 












I 








3 

2 
2 

4 










2 


I 

I 










I 








2 








2 


















13 


2 


3 


5 


2 


25 







62 




SANDUSKY 



C O u N T Y 



OTTAWA COUNTY 



Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



63 



PAULDING COUNTY. 

Auglaize township contains one mound, one village site and 
one buiial; Brown township, one burial, and Washington town- 
ship, one village site and one burial. These six prehistoric sites 
comprise all that have been recorded in Paulding county. 

In common with most other northwestern Ohio counties, the 
topography of Pauldmg county appears to have been too flat to 
attract aboriginal settlement in a permanent form. 



PAULDING COUNTY. 



Townships. 


-9 


1 


■c 


1 




1 


I 


I 
I 
I 












I 












Totals 


I 


2 


3 


6 







63 




PAULDING COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



64 



PERRY COITNTy. 

The large stone enclosure near Glenford, known as Glenford 
Fort, is one of the most impressive of the so-called hill-top en- 
closures in Ohio. This great work is located on the top of a hill, 
which stands about 300 feet above the level of the stream at its 
base and is practically isolated from any other elevated area in 
the vicinity. The only connection with the higher groxmd is to 
the southeast where a narrow ridge connects the fortified hill 
with the main land. The top of this eminence contains about 26 
acres and is practically level with the sides dropping off in a 
vertical ledge. 

The stone wall follows generally close to the ledge, its entire 
length being 6,610 feet and its height at present from one foot to 
six feet A large stone mound was located within the enclosure. 

The Glenford Fort, from its strategic position and rugged 
location, its great size and impressive character, is one of the 
interesting prehistoric works of the state. 

Northern Perry county is rich in mounds and enclosui-es, 
with a considerable number of prehistoric sites throughout the 
county. 

The total number of sites is 103, consisting of 7 enclosures, 
86 motmds, 4 village sites, 1 group of flint quarries and 5 burials. 



PEEKT COUNTY. 



Townships, 


in 
C 

1 


Fji closures. 


S3' 

in 

1 

> 


m 


Flint Quarries. 


Totals. 


Thorn 


22 

19 

2 

]6 

7 
5 
5 

4 
I 


2 

4 


I 


















I 
I 
























































1 




Beartield 






2 
t 
















3 

I 

1 




I 








2 






Coal 


I 


















Totals 


86 


7 


4 


5 


1 


103 






Wliitlitscy's Map oi Gltniurd i'uri. 




VKW iri)iii iln- iiitiTior oi lilciiiorcl i''ort, nonr the st'inc monnci. 



64 



-S^^vL'- ' c « 1 N 



PERRY COUNTY 

Scale, one Inch equals three miles 




65 



PICKAWAY COUNTY. 

Circleville, the count}' seat of Pickaway county, takes its 
name from the imposing prehistoric earthwork which occupied 
the gromid on which the town is built. This great work was the 
most noitherly of the complex eirele-and-square type of the en- 
closures located along tbe Seiota river. It consisted of a combina- 
tion of a circle and a square, connected hy parallel line's or walls. 
The Circleville entrlosure consisted of two concentric umhaiik- 
ments separated by a ditch anil was the only example of the kind 
in the valley of the Scioto. 

A work which might be tei-mcd an effigy, or better perhaps, 
an anomalous work, is the ''Cross," situated near Tarlton, Salt 
Creek township. This \\'ork as its name implies, is in the foi-m 
of a cross, 90 feet in each direction, and about 3 feet high. In 
the center of the figure there is a saucer shaped depression 20 
feet across and about 20 inches iu depth. There are several 
mounds, mostly quite small, located neai'by. 

Pickawa}', like other counties situated on the lower course 
of the Scioto river, is rich in prehistoric sites. There are a total 
of 241 sites, including one effigy, or anomalous work, 32 en- 
closures, 175 mounds, 8 village sites and 27 burials. 



PICK.\WAY COUNTY. 



Townships, 


Mounds. 


tf5 
U 

u 

M 
O 


Village Sites. 


1 

Burials. 

1 


in 

i 


Darby 


3 

5 

.S 

l6 

1.1 

1 

12 
21 

5 
•7 

5 

9 


I 
3' 


1 








2 

3 
I 










5 
4 
I 

"3V 

3 
I 

S 

I 

1^ 

: 
I ■ 












> 
I 


2 

4 

2 

I 












Harrison 








Walnut 


3 


4 
1 

2 

4 
I 








Washington 








Salt Creek 








ToUls 


m 


33 


8 


27 






241 




'mS CR035 ^' 

O PtcAaway Cot/nfy. Ohio. > 



foo Axsr 




Stone Mound, Snake Den Group. 



65 




PICKAWAY COUNTY 



c o u N r Y 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



66 



PIKE COUNTY. 

Two importaut examples of piehistoric earthworks are fouud 
in Pike county. One of these is the iuic complex enclosure, con- 
sisting of a couibiuation of a square and circles, located in ycioto 
townshix), about 5 miles below Piketon. The other is the so-called 
"Grraded Way," near Piketon. 

The Scioto township work lies about a half mile back from 
the Scioto river, at the edge of the teri'ace and consists primarily 
of a circle connected by parallel walls with a square. Supple- 
mentary to the main work were a dozen smaller figures, circles, 
crescents, etc. The area of the square is about 15 acres and that 
of the cii'cle approximately the same. 

The so-called Graded Way at Piketon consists of two parallel 
earthen walls thrown up on either side of a former channel or 
cut-off of Beaver creek. These walls, the general trend of which 
is from north to south, are from 3 to 6 feet in height, the east 
wall having been i-educed under cultivation. The walls measm-e 
636 and 761 feet respective!}' in length. It was formerly sup- 
posed tliat the depression between the walls had been artificially 
consti-ucted, but later opinions are to the effect that this is en- 
tii-ely or in great part the natural cut>off' or bed occupied by the 
stream at some fomier time. Its use has not been fully de- 
termined. 

One mile northeast of Piketon, and one-third of a mile east 
of that town, exist circular depressions, the former excavated in 
the top of a high hiU. The latter was ten feet deep and 210 feet 
in circumference. 

Most of the prehistoric sites of Pike county are confined to 
the Tieinity of the Scioto river in its course through the county. 
Thei'e are a total of 64 sites, 8 of which are enclosures and 44 
mounds. 







ANCIENT WORKS 

P:ht CouKrf.Gfu'B 




Kiiclusures live miles below Pikelon. 



PIKE COTJNTY. 









lO 














V 








Townships. 


•3 


I 

I 

■a 

s 


1 


urials. 


u 

1 


"3 

o 




»S 


W 


> 


W 


U 


H 




I 


1 




I 








2 


















2 








2 












3 
'3 

I 


I 




I 

3 
I 
I 


t 










I 

3 

1 


I 
I 






Seal 






















Totals 


44 


8 


2 


9 


1 


64 





^^^^'-^ '-'-:S^^^^ 




Squicr -.iw\ l.iavis's "view" <'\ ibe Graded Way. 



66 




s c 1 o T a 



PIKE COUNTY 



Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



67 



PORTAGE COUNTY. 

There are no earthworks of great importance in Portage 
county. The total of 31 prehistoric sites is composed of 16 mounds, 
5 village sites, 1 cemetery, 8 burials and 1 cache. The works are 
distributed about equally between the Cuyahoga and Mahoning 
rivers and their tributaries. 

The old Mahoning trail crossed Portage county from east to 
west, and had a branch leading to the northwest to the Cuyahoga 
river towns near the mouth of that river. There are indications 
of important aboriginal travel over these trails, in the way of 
many relics of stone and other material which have been found in 
the section which they traversed. 

PORTAGE COUNTY. 







UJ 










TownshiDS. 


4 






8 








V 


U) 


lU 








e 


=3 


•S 


■c 




(A 




^ 


> 




u 


6 


[^ 




I 














2 

I 


I 

2 














I 








3 




I 












1 














2 












I 




I 






5 

2 




2 












I 










2 


I 


I 


















i6 


5 


8 


I 


I 


3" 





67 




STARK 



C U N T Y 



M A M O N I H G 



PORTAGE COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



68 



PREBLE COUNTY. 

The valley of Twin creek contains the majority of the pre- 
historic sites in Preble county. These consist of four enclosures, 
two of them in Twin township and two in Lanier township; six 
mounds, one village site and 10 burials— a total of 21 sites. 

None of the earthworks of Preble county are of an imposing 
character, but evidences of a busy prehistoric population are not 
wanting. Many fine examples of prehistoric art in stone and flinf 
have been collected m the Twin creek valley and along otlier 
branches of the Great Miami river which have their rise in that 
county. 







PltEBT.R COUNTT. 










Townships. 


4 

§ 

1 


Enclosures. 


Village Sites. 


Burials. 


O 




I 






I 

2 

3 














I 
I 


















2 


I 


3 






3 






2 




1 














Totals . . 


6 


4 


' 


lO 


21 







68 



C U N T Y 




COUNTY 



PREBLE COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



69 



PUTNAM COUNTY. 

Piitnam is siiarse in preliistoric sites, the tot;il number re- 
corded being but 11. Of these, 6 are mounds, 1 a village site and 
4 are burials. 

An aboriginal trail passed north and south through the 
county, its general course being that of the Auglaize river. Many 
specimens have been found upon the surface, along this stream 
and in the country adjacent thereto, showing that prehistoric 
man frequently visited the county. 

Perry towiiship has 3 mounds; Ottawa, 1 moimd and 1 vil- 
lage site and Blanehard, 2 mounds aiid 4 burials. 

PT7TNAM COUNTY. 









."! 












^M 




















Townships. 


in 


in 










-a 


Village 




1 




3 
I 










I 






Blanchard . 


2 




4 










Totals 


6 


1 


4 


II 







69 




PUTNAM COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



70 



RICHLAND COUNTY. 

The three enclosures of Ridiland comity are located along 
Rocky Pork of Mohican riTer — one in Madison to\viiship and two 
in Mifflin. The i^rincipal monnd group is in the vicinity of Bell- 
^■ille, in Jeffei'son township. 

The county has a total of 21 sites, 3 of which are enclosures, 
14 mounds, 2 village sites and 2 burials. 



HIUHLAND COUNTY. 



Townships. 


•A 

s 


V 

o 

1 


in 
m 

+-■ 

W 

u 
be 

a 








I 










Weller 






1 






2 
2 
2 










I 

2 


I 






Mifflin 










I 






6 

I 












1 












Totals 


14 


3 


2 


2 


21 







HURON 



COUNTY' 1 



70 



RICHLAND COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 




C u N 



T f 



ROSS COUNTY. 

71 Ross county comprises within its territory the most interest- 

ing archaeological area of its size in Ohio and jirobably in the 
United States and might be termed the center of highest culture 
of the mound-building peoples. 

It is remarkal)le for the great munber and diversity of highly 
specialized earthworks; a type peculiar to the highest develop- 
ment of aboriginal man in the Ohio valley. This type consists 
of figures more or less geometrically exact, principally the square 
and circle, singl}' or in combination. They are distinct from the 
so-called forts or defensive structtires, which are assigned their 
purpose from the strategic positions occupied, usually a hilltop 
or other point of vantage, easily defended and difficult of ap- 
proach. 

The great total of 455 prehistoric sites has been recorded in 
Ross county. Forty-nine of these are of the enclosure class, \vln1c 
370 are moinids. These prehistoric remains are distributed gen- 
erally along the Scioto river and the north and south forks of 
Paint creek. Great as may appear the nimiber of recorded works 
in the county, according tn early observers and writers and to 
more recent scientific examination it is believed that many more 
such remains at one time existed, many of which at this time have 
been obliterated. 

One of the gi-eatest of the Ross county works, particularly as 
evincing a higli degree of culture of its makers and occupants, is 
that loiown as the Hopewell Group, in Union township, on north 
fork of Paint creek. Tt consists primarily of two conjoined figin-es 
—a square of 15 acres and a larger ii're.gular parallelogram of 
about no acres. Within the larger enclosure there are two sec- 
ondary enclosures, one a semi-eirenlar figiu-e containing 7 mounds 
and the other a circle with 1 raouncl. Outside these secondary 
enclosures hut within the large figure are 13 other mounrls, and 
within the square there arc four mounds set opposite an equal 
number of gateways. Specimens secured from excavations into 
the mounds of the Hopewell group are of the most advanced type 
yet found in Ohio. 

The Harness works in the Scioto valley, Liberty township, 
consists of a combination of a square, a large and a small circle. 
Tlie square contains about 27 acres and the large circle about 40 
acres. Tliis work is a very imposing one and evinces the high 
culture of its builders. It takes its name from the o^mer of the 
land on which tlic work is situated. A large monud located within 
the larger of the two circles, was thoroughly excavated by the 
Society in 190.1 and many fine specimens iUnstrating the life of 
the buildors of tlic works were obtained. 

The High Bauks works are situated a few miles north of the 
Harness works ;nid al)out four miles south oF Chillicothe. They 
consist of a ciir-le and an octagon in conjunction and of several 
small circles, and parallel walls in close proximity. The large 
circle contains 10 acres and the octagon about two acres less. A 
rctuarkalile featui-e of the High Banks works is that, while none 
of the figures comprising the Ross county works are geometrically 
exact, the large circle in these works approaches very near to an 
exact circle. Each of eight gateways in the octagon is faced by 
a mound. 



A typical work of the square-and-eircle combination formerly 
existed at the eastern edge of the city of ChiUicothe and another 
of similar type was located at the town of Frankfort, in Concord 
township. 

An interesting work is that near Hopeto\vn in Springfield 
township. It consists of a square and circle with extended parallel 
walls and with several smaller circles nearby. Each of the larger 
figures encloses upwards of 20 acres. 

The Ccdai- Banlcs works lie just north of the Hopetown 
worlcs, and consist of a square, or rectangle, which contains an 
elevated structure, resembling the elevated squares found in the 
Marietta works. This platform is about 250 feet long, 150 feet 
wide and 4 feet high. The usual circle is missing in ttris work, 
hut there is n rectangidar enclosure nearby, but detached, 870 
feet long and 70 feet wide. Some distance to the south of the 
main work tho'c is a small circle and a square mound. The area 
of the large squai-e or rectangle is about 30 acres. 

One of the interesting works of the coimty is that Icno-wn as 
Mound Cit^', located in Union township, a few miles north of 
ChiUicothe. This work consists of a rectangular enclosure with 
the comers rounded off and containing within its simple walls 
23 mounds. From these mounds the early explorers and writers 
on Ohio antiquites, Sqnier & Da\as secured some of the finest 
specimens, representing the highest sculptural art of pi-ehisforie 
man, inehiding many effigy pipes in the form of animals, birds 
and reptiles. 

Dunlaps "Works are located on the land of the County In- 

fiiTnary, a .slinrt distance north of Mound City. Tliey consist of a 
large rectangle and a small circle connected by i)aranel lines and 
parallel walls of considerable length. A small o-\al enclosure is 
nearby. 

The Blackwater group is located on the east side of the Scioto 
river, near the northern line of the county. Tt consists of 7 circles 
and crescents, all small and not connected and a peculiar rec- 
tangidar figure fomied by parallel waUs ivith closed ends, located 
some distance further south than the circles. These latter are 
about 750 feet long and 60 feet wide. 

Tlie Junction group, is situated on Paint creek about two 
miles we-st of ChiUicothe and consists of nine small figures, all 
detached. These figm-es are in the form of circles, rectangles and 
crescents. 

The Banm works are located on Paint creek, in Twin town- 
ship, near the village of Bourneville. They consist of a square, 
a large and a small circle, in conjunction. The square in this work 
is almost geometi-ically correct. In connection with the Baum 
works is one of the most extensive and remarkable prehistoric 
village sites in the state. It was explored by the Ohio State 
Archfeological anrl Historical Society in 1S90, 1002 and 1003 and 
many hundreds of most interesting and valuable relics were se- 
cured. These are now on exhibition in the Society's museum. 

The Seip group, is one of the largest in the Scioto valley. It 
is located on the north liank of Paint creek about 3 miles east 
of the tovi-n of Bainhridge. in Paxton township. It resembles in 
form the Baum works. AVithin the enclosure are two mounds, 
the larger of which is kno\vn as the Prieer mound and the smaller 



as till! tSeip umuiul. This latter iiiouutl was full)- explored by 
the Ohio State Arflia'olugical and Histurical .Society iu 1908 and 
tin.' iiitcrfsliiii^ iihj(_'i.'ts taken therel'roiii, rejirusentiiig the higher 
of tlie twn ciillurrs in the iSeiotu vallev, are to be .seen at the 
Society's iiiuseiiiii. 

Other interesting explorations of the Society in Koss county 
are those of the Adena iiiomid and the CJartner uioimd and village 
site. Adena nmnnd was located upon the estate nf (_i(pvernor 
Worthingldii a slmit distance northwest of Chilticulhe oji the 
west sid<? of the Hvei'. The (Jartner monnd and village site arc 
opposite the Dunlait works iu Greeu township. Botli sites pro- 
duced a greal deal of intei'esliiig mate'ial, that of the Uartner 
site, like the llainii village site, heiug of the Fort Ancient, or 
lower cnUnre, and tliut of the Adena inouud, like the Harness 
and Seip mounds, lieing of the Hopewell, or higher culture. All 
this material is displayed at the nmseiun. 

One of tlui finest examples of defensive enclosures in the 
state is that at S[iru(-e Hill, a short distance northeast of the 
IJanni wnrks. This fort is triangular in shape with the point 
toward the northeast. The wall is of stone, and is carried around 
tlie brow of a rugged hill, very difficult of access and counnaud- 
ijig a view of tlie eomitry for miles iu all directions. 

Southeast from Spruce Hill fort and just across the stream 
known as lilack run, there is one of the most peculiar of the 
county's earthworks. This structure is of stone, the main hgure 
being an ellipse measuring 170 hy '2oO feet, with an opening 
toward the south. At liic opening, the terminations of the wall 
curve bark upon themselves for a distance of about liO feel. 
Kadiating from the top of the ellipse ai-e five walls of stone, ex- 
tending in the same genei-al direction as the shorter axis of the 
ellipse. 

ROSS COUNTY. 



Towiislii|is. 


.Mounds. 


u 


u 

1 




re 




^5 
6 

r» 

R 

84 

44 
25 
14 
17 
20 
2 
26 
24 
10 


3 


I 


3 
1 




raitil . ... 






t 
2 

1 

15 
9 
2 
2 
3 








4 
1 

I 


20 




2 




















I 
1 








1 

I 










2 
3 




















■ 












370 


49 


9 


27 


455 







\ 



o 



71 A 



HCPETON WORKS 





Adcn.i Mounrl. 



71 B 



O 




ANCIENT /IICRHS 

Rcii Ccvnty Ohio 



Tilt SliriviT ( iri 



U]l. 




Spruce Hill Fort, near Rourneville, 





CEDAR-BflNK WORm 



71 




ROSS COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three mtles 



72 



SAISTDUSKY COUNTY. 

Sandusky county was one of the most strategic and important 
sections of Ohio in aboriginal times. It was cMefly remarkable 
, as being probably tbe most important trail center in the state. 
Around Sanduskj' bay there were a number of aboriginal towns 
and at this point the greatest trails centered. Among these was 
the so-called Great Trail from the Alleghem' I'egion, which jiassed 
on around the lake and thence northward ; the Shoi'e trail, which 
followed the south shore of the lake; the trails running north 
along the Scioto and Sandusky rivers from the Ohio and further 
south; and the Mahoning trail which merged with the Great 
Trail not far below Sandusky bay. 

Altko the importance of the county was mainly that of a 
great station where trails centered, there was a considerable per- 
manent population, as evidenced by a number of enclosures and 
other works found along the Sandusky river. One of these en- 
closures was located where the city of Fremont now stands, while 
between that city and the bay there were at least five others. One 
was located just south of Fremont and another near the south 
line of the county and two others near the mouth of Pickerel 
ereek. The county has a total of 18 recorded prehistoric sites. 



SANDUSKY GOTJN"Tr. 



Townships. 


Mounds, 


Enclosures. 


1 
> 


Burials. 


■a 

-4-1 

Q 

H 


Rice 








1 






I 


6 

2 


3 
I 




Ballville ... 






Riley 








York 


T 




I 












Totals 


2 


JO 


4 


3 


r8 







72 




SANDUSKY COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three mtles 



73 



SOiOTO COUNTY. 



If iSeiuto comity had fui-uisliwl tu arclieoiogicai liistury uo 
more thau tlie one work, that at Portsmouth, it would atill hold 
an important place therein. 

The Portsmouth work is one of the most complex and im- 
pressive in the Ohio valley, it eonsicsty really of three groups, 
two of which ai-e across the river in Kentucky. The works on the 
Ohio side are a combination of crescents small cii'cles and parallel 
walls. At the time of the examination of the works by Squier 
and Davis iu lt)47 it was found that there were leading from the 
group on the Ohio side, three sets of parallel walls, "covered ways 
or avenues" as they were termed. One set of these walls led north- 
westward and was lost iu the broken groimd of the plain; an- 
other set led southward to the Ohio river, at a point ahnost di- 
rectly oitposite a second gi'oup of the works on the Kentucky side 
and a third set trended southeastward, reaching the river at a 
point opposite the thii-d group of the works. 

Squier and Davis estimated that the total length of the walls 
then traceable was 8 miles, giving Hi miles of embankment to the 
parallels alone and that the grand total of the walls of the entire 
series was the remarkable sum of 20 miles. 

The more westerly of the Kentucky groups consisted of a 
square and two rectangular enclosures, while that toward the east 
was a series of concentric circles. 

Another most interesting work of Seioto county, is the effigy 
mound located about 5 miles above Portsmouth, near the village 
of Rushto\vn. This figure is in the form of an animal, somewhat 
resembling a tapir, from which it has become known as the tapir 
mound, ft is surroimded by an enclosure which ia 480 feet across 
in its longest measurement. The figure stands from one to eight 
feet high . Scioto county has a total of 85 recorded prehistoric 
sites. 

SCIOTO COITNTT. 



Townships. 


Mounds. 


u 
t- 

1 


1 
Village Sites. 


in 

n 

■M 


Effigies. 


Flint Quarries. 


"(3 


Nile 


5 
7 

2 

3 






1 
3 








3 

2 
I 


I 








.. . . 






Valiey 

Jefferson 




I 
I 
5 

2 

I 












Qay 


Ifl 

1 

1 


4 


4 








Madison 










1 














1 






2 

10 


I 

2 


I 
[ 










1 
















Totals 


47 


14 


7 


'5 


I 


I 


85 






ANCIENT WORK 
5o/ofo Cou/7ty, O/r/'e 



Effigj' Mound Near Rushtoivn, 



PORTSMOUTH WOffK.5 

'3croro Cowff, Ohio, 




fe^'f'V"- 




73 



SCIOTO COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



74 



SENECA COUNTY. 

Seneca county has 23 recorded prehistoric sites, consisting of 
2 enclosures, 3 mounds, 7 village sites, 1 cemetery and 10 burials. 
Both the enclosures are located on Honey creek, one in Bloom and 
the other in Eden township. Thompson township, in the extreme 
northeast of the county, presents many evidences of prehistoric 
occupation. 

The old Scioto trail from the Ohio river to Sandiisky bay 
passed through this county, following generally the course of the 
Sandusky river. 



SENECA COUNTT. 



Townships. 


-3 

3 

o 


i 


> 


in 

■c 

3 


u 

a 
6 


in 


Loudon 








3 






Bie" Spring 












Seneca 












Hopewel! 


















2 
2 








3 


I 
I 


















2 












3 


I 












Totals . 


3 


2 


7 


lO 


I 


23 





74 




W Y fl N D O T 



C O U N T Y 



CRAWFORD 



C O U N T Y 



SENECA COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



75 



SHELBY COUNTY. 

But one earthwork has been recorded in Shelby county, a 
moimd in Van Buren township. A total of 9 sites have been noted, 
inclnding two village sites one cemetery and 5 burials. 

The county was an important district during historic Indian 
times, but appears not to have attracted any considerable pre- 
historic population. 

SHELBY COTTN-TT. 



Townships. 



m 

C 






CO 



nl 
T 

m 






o 



Van Buren . 
Cynthia n . . 
Loramie . . . 
Washington 
Orange . . . . 
Green 

Totals . 



75 



C U N T y 




SHELBY COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



76 



STARK COUNTY. 

The Talley of tlie Tuscarawas in eastern Stark county, con- 
tains most of the county's earthworks. There is a work of anomal- 
ous character at Myers Lake, near Canton, which by some has been 
considered as an effigy and by others merely an irregularly shaped 
mound. The county has but one recorded enclo.snre, which is 
situated in the extreme southwest eoraer, in Sugar Creek town- 
ship. There are a total of 26 prehistoric sites, 15 of which are 
mounds. 

The Great Trail passed along the southei-n line of the county, 
and the Cuyahoga-Muskingiun trail followed the course of the 
Tuscarawas river north and south. 



8TABK COUNTY. 



Townships. 


Mounds. 


Enclosures. 


Village Sites. 


"a 
1- 

3 


1 


Lawrence 








I 






4 

2 
2 

4 
I 


I 


I 




Sugar Creek 








I 
I 




Perry 




I 




Jackson 




Plain 






I 






I 
I 














I 
I 




Pike 










I 


















Totals 


i6 


I 


3 


6 


26 







76 



PORTAGE 



COUNTY 




COUNTY CARROL 



STARK COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



77 



SUMMIT COUNTY, 

The valley of the Cuyahoga ri"\-er in Summit county is an in- 
teresting arehasoJogical district. There are 11 enclosures re- 
corded, several of which are interesting examples of the northern 
Ohio type of this class of works. A nmnber of caches of stone and 
flint implements have been found. At the Boston ledges in eastern 
Boston township are evidences of a rock shelter which was no 
doubt used as an aboriginal domicile. 

There is a petrogly^^h cut on a rock at the southern end of 
Turkey Foot lake in Franklin township. The county has a total 
of 41 prehistoric sites, of which 21 are mounds. 

SUMMIT COUNTY. 



Townships. 


4 

a 

§ 


in 

3 

1 


1 

> 


FO 

■c 

CQ 


1 

U 


Petroglyphs. 


ui 
U 

(J 

^3 


u 

o 


CO 


Northfield .... 


2 
2 

6 
4 
4 


I 
2 

6 
I 

I 










I 
I 






Boston 










I 




Northampton .. 


I 


I 


I 






Copley 










Norton 


I 








I 
















Coventry 


3 
























I 


























Totals . . . 


21 


II 


2 


I 


r 


I 


3 


I 


41 



CO U N "T Y 



SUMMIT COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 




77 



78 



TRUMBULL COUNTY. 

Trmiibull county has two enclosures, 14 mounds, 3 village sites 
and 11 burials — -a total of 30 prehistoric sites. They are dis- 
ti'ibuted about equally along the waters of Mahoning and Grand 
rivers and Pymatuning creek. Both of the enclosures are located 
on the latter stream. 

In prehistoric times the salt springs aroimd Warren doubt- 
less played an impoi-tant part ^^ trails led from them in three 
directions. 

TEUMBtnx COUNTY. 



Townships. 



I 
g 
1^ 



S 

I 



.1 

en 



P 



m 



I 



Bloomtield . . 
Green 

Kinsman 

Farminglon . 

Mecca 

Johnston .... 

Vernon 

Southington . . 
Champion . . . 

Hartford 

Braceville . . . 

Warren 

Newton 

Lordstown . . 
Weathersfiehl 
Liberty 



Totals 



I 
I 

2 

14 



2 

I 
I 



It 



30 



78 



ASHTABULA 



COUNTY 




MA HON! N S 



COUNTY 



TRUMBULL COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



79 



TUSCAEAWAS COUNTY. 

The valley of the Tuscarawas river in Tuscarawas county is 
moderately represented iu prehistoric sites. The two enclosures 
of the county however, are situated some distance from the river. 
One of these is in southern Auburn township and the other in 
northern Clay township. 

The county has a total of 27 sites, 16 of which are mounds. 

A monument at Gnadenhutten, erected by the Moravians in 
1872 marks the site of the massacre of Moravian Christian In- 
dians in 1782 by white troopers from Pennsylvania. 



TUSC.\EAWAS COtTSTY. 



Townships. 


•9 

c 

3 

o 


Enclosures. 


Village Sites. 


V3 

•a 

-t-t 

f2 




1 ■ 




I 
I 










[ 
I 








I 


1 












I 




Mill 


I 

2 


















! 

3 
I 




Qay 


3 
7 


r 




Oxford 








Totals ; . 


t6 


2 


9 


27 





T fr 



R ^ 



.dl 



Cf I 



SJrR- ■ .C R E* 



r» I ri 



\1 



?A| II 



U, 



3- 



L -sr*"-*;: 



"f" 



o 
u 



*^j 



iT Holly r 



f-^ 



TUSCARAWAS COUNTY 

Scale, one Inch equals three miles 



■-F ir.^ 



^ur 



riL. 

GUERNSEY 






COUNT 


Y 










¥^-Q 


K"JJ 






79 




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•t L , 










— -»-=j^r — "^ li^'^M^^K' 


^1 X 










^"- I/^"#^ 


^^5?^h 










^"ilit^d^r ' 


jD J^^ Z 










^^^"^TJ^j* 


v4^^ 3 










kl^ 


^° 










^^^^^ 


fcf%j 










'k ^'^ • "^Jhi 


*-■ \ , -- rn| 1 










W^fM 


^^fc 








LJrfT^^ 


^'=^^V^ 


f^^\ 


1 






' '^/^ )rfB^''^%^ 


jL P 1: Q^^&!^ 


-bui-iberknJl 








^iX /"/ 


^^^'W^' 


W^ 








nl3^ 


^j^m 


=n0^iC 








'=%J^^£fl 


JCj^^ 


P^^ 


_! 






hta-OTj ol^^ 


[Sv^*'^^ 


V '■"fl 


-J 






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s^^fej^ — Lh^"*-|[1 - 


''^^^^^pi — ■ 








^^^^^4Jf ^ -^ 


V^i^^^r^^ 


^^-"^^ 


O 






7^^^^ 




^^ 


IT 






^^ 


^^. i^K,fH%UL<t if*^^r 


f^^i 


< 








r^^ 


o 






l^te^^^ 


■vnhiM ^r^>J Iff* 


^K| 


. 


■ 




^fej^^W^ 


3W //'I 


■1 ' Vr 








'^^SRS 


c 


fqM 


4~f' 








cK^^^ 




jX-i 


\i~\ 








^ 1 J W '^'^' 


1^ ^Xli" ' 1 


***=%( •=' 








j^Sj^J^ 


J\\b\^ 1 11 Jti— J 1 


j^^^^ 


>- 






J^^^C^ "'■'"^ 




^E^^. 


h- 






-^T^^JjlVj 




i^B 


2 






■■-'■' .-^^ / iT"**^ 




~^^i*?' 


D 






^t Vj 




I^ri 


O 






^^r -fi^^ 


aF^L 


\i->i 


o 






■ rff~~ 4ai— i^irj —■ — - — 


i^^fjmf r- — "T^"''^^ 


i^^^^Sh^' — 1 








""1 -^^^ 


J 1 aP^^i-ilpo " S 5* 


^^M 








■' f^ML^ 




k^^ 








^^d:^^ 


i^^C^ 


^3^ 








^^m 


^M 










S^^^F 


T'" 1 








^^^ 












^^^^ 


-I-&1M-J 










tsA' '(e/KA 


M-v ~ 










J^^^^al ^1 


V^«|l a 










^^^ 


^X] ^ 










jfj^' < 










i^u^TF^'F' 


iWBtf^l IT 










n^ fS^'^ \k= 


1 -:, 










COUNTY 


1 























80 



UNION COITNTY. 

The prehistoric sites of Union county— 28 in number— are 
confined to mounds and bui-ials. Tlie number of mounds is 11 and 
the remaining 17 are burials. These sites are scattered quite gen- 
erally, but sparsely, thi-ougiiout the county. 

While otherwise favorable to aboriginal habitation, Union 
county is lacldng iu large streams, which was one of the prime 
requisites to settlement of a peimanent or important nature, 

UNION COUNTY. 



Townships, 



•ft 



i2 



Washington 
Jackson — 

York 

Claiborne . , 
Liberty , . , 
Lees burg , . 

AUen 

Paris 

Dover 

Darby ..... 
Mill Creek . 
Jerome . . . , 



Totals 



4 
1 

2 



II 



1 

2 

3 
I 
I 

3 



4 
I 
I 

17 



28 





80 




-^ HARDIN CO. MARION CO 


U N T V 










|^^2S^^-^!^i^P^^F=-4==^^;^^1 - 


















































^ ; ) Xr-^"^-^^ V \ JL^f""-^ IrHIs^ b\ n4 1 














, f _esiii~M ^1(\ U=^ rWj_— , 1 i\- H '^/"l ' 














/s J^fti4l^^^\ X 1" \^ \ r^rM^H*' 1 /4i 














=• ^ f L ^fevw^^-A^ 1 LJ^^^ft^TT^ 














o \/\ Ty^T^ ihw=--^^i^cT'^^^Zj<in^ -^ ^ '^ 
















1/ ,l 










^i 












Aftitiwici SD^ 


> 








u\n N E^ 












2 












K^^«!*^==«sjj' ^T/ Vat ^™^ y t\/ \ ii\ -^S^sas^^ 


D 












( v/ ^// /"fW^"^^^ *'^^^='5=Q_// //l^ / WCItHrfeorwW jL^^'^'^^~^ \fl >^i 














/ JA *// / '/ v/^pWM- r--^^^^=^r\~K kC==(i VI 


o 














u 


UNION COUNTY 










i-4ii»*'X<^ ff /' y *£^S^--S:iC- — s 1^^,^^ S^H (r^=M/ X \ 
















, 


Scale, one Inch equals three miles 












■ 


























'3i.l>'^^"»ifc^ i^ojmSM^MjJ^^s"*"^ jT Im^ /A J^^/ 


; £j 














rK^^fy^^X^^^A y Pi "^ * ^V"- °Jnr// /^ '^ 


B^tu^rsio 














; ^^^U^^ydL— -t^+H 


U I : 
















\ 

1 










1 


X #^vi^Vfc/=l^rP^-^ 


1 












W''^^T^^^^ wr Si J l_~i ' tI IT: ill pi 'il ^ 1, " L (L-L-iL =J jf^Mi ^^ 


1 
1 










„^ 


\y )^A}w/r^irT^34JJ4^h^H 












°ft 


^ L/3<^X^d '^^y r W'^^T^K^W 


t 










'< 




■4 

1 ^_^ 










L. 


/^\\\P^!^ \ N Jk'yjSr^^lj.g^^^^ IS] 1 ^J^l ^ 


SI—— 


_Ai—%^^< 












"^lH^ 


SL^4l' 












/^kj^^l^ 


fSr 


"■^^i" 






^feu 












^4 


rrjA^^ 










2 / ^f^ r^^^^^^^^ ^'"'"jS^^^^'^ A i"^*, '' ..i^^K '^\g^ 


a^ 


.^ \H _j 












/ w 


T^° 












Mw^d^fW 


ijji— ~tTJ| 










a ^^^? ^\^>^^^^=v^^ ;^ iX^ 


yy^l 


_^ ^4^ 










^i//^f w ^i^^:,^^^ 


^[O 


*^«^y>^-ci— 










*^ \J W It sT ff ^r^^^^^'^^^—^^^^^ 


^^rfji 


N^ ^^StJ (J 












^^^. 


\ T^ 












^Mf^ 


^ 


V^^C^' 






/ Vt_-4h^ ^^%L-.^j-<Lii==^ — tS:^ =sa=Tr^i 






























MADISON ecu 


N T Y 


FRAN*" 





81 



VAN WERT COUNTY. 

One euclosure, 2 mounds, 3 village sites, 1 cemetery and 6 
burials, a total of 13, make up the list of Van Wert county pre- 
historic sites. The one enclosure of the coimty is in Liberty town- 
ship. 

The old trail, connecting the trails leading southeast, to the 
Scioto irtith the Maiuuee river, passed along the eastern Ijorder of 
Van Wert and there have been found many indications of im- 
portant travel along this aboriginal highway. 



VAN WERT COTTNTT. 



Townships. 


C 
3 
O 


Enclosures. 


Village Sites. 


i 

=1 


u 


o 








I 












1 










I 


2 


2 
2 
2 


1 




Rids"e 




Wasliington 




I 




















Totals 


2 


1 


3 


6 


1 


13 







81 



COUNTY 




VAN WERT COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



82 



VINTO?^ COUNTY. 

Vinton coimty like Jackson, ia remarkable in having a large 
number of mounds, with no large water courses. The majority of 
the coimties showing e\drlenees of c'omi)aratively dense or long 
continued populations are those thi'ough which sti'eams of im- 
portance pass affording a dependable water supply, as well as 
fishing and hunting grounds and a highway for canoe travel. 

The total number of prehistoric sites in Vinton county is 74 
of which 60 are mounds and five enclosures. The five enclosures 
are located in the northeastern part of the county, on Raccoon or 
nearby. The distribution of the mounds is pretty general through- 
out the county. 



VINTON COUNTY. 









S^" 






Townships. 


r/i 


in 

a 


c75 








t3 


aj 


tn 






C 


B 


Sf 


ra 


tfj 






■3 


re 
> 


3 







5 






2 










3 






lO 

4 
3 
















I 
















5 


4 


I 


I 




Elk 


14 


I 










4 


















I 






4 

4 
7 














I 
























Totals 


60 


5 


I 


8 


74 





82 




VINTON COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



f 



r 



83 



"WAEEEN COUNTY. 

In the matter of individual earthwoi'ks of importance, War- 
ren coxmty stands among the fii-st two or three in the state. Fort 
Ancient gives tlie county the distinction of having the greatest 
hillto]) enclosure or "fort" in the state and in many i-espects one 
of the most remarkable of knoAvn prehistoric w'orks. In another 
class of woi'ks — the effigy class — Warren county presents an ex- 
ample second only to the Great Serpent in Adams county. This 
work is known as the Warren County Serpent and is located on 
the south side of the Little Miami river in northern Hamilton 
township. 

Foi't Ancient is situated on an eminence on the east side of 
the Little Miami river, in Washington tomiahip. The colossal 
earthwork is in-egular in fonn. conforming to the topography of 
the hill on which it lies. This hill, or jilateau, is a strong position 
Ijeing protected on two sides hy declivitous ravines and on the 
third side hy the precipitous descent to the river. The tortuous 
walls of the fort, which measure 18,712 hi length, exclusive of 
detached works, are the result of its heing carried around the very 
edge of the plateau and following all the sinuosities of its out- 
lines. The walls of the fort vary in height from a few feet at the 
most pi-ecipitous point to 18 or 20 feet where the walla cross the 
level plain. The longest straight line that can be drawn within 
the walls is about 5,000 feet, or almost one mile. The general 
form of the fort is two rudely triangular areas connected hy a 
narrow i-ectaugular area, thus constituting pi-actically three al- 
most distinct enclosures, termed respectively the North Fort, 
Middle Fort and South Fort. 

Fort Ancient and the laud upon which it stands is now the 
property of the State of Ohio and is in charge of the Ohio 
Arehffiological and Historical Society. A model of the fort and 
many relics found theieat, can he seen at the Society's nmsemn. 

The Warren eounti' Serpent is situated just across the river 
from the village of Stnbbs' Mills. It lies with the head towai-d 
the waters of Baker's creek near its mouth, the body nndnlating 
towards the southwest and terminating at the opposite side of the 
sharp bend in the stream which it occupies. There are many 



points of similarit)', both as to foi-m and size between the Warren 
county serpent and that of Adams county. 

Warren county has a total of 112 recorded prehistoric sites 
8 of which are enclosures and 62 are mounds. 



W.A,RREN COUNTY. 









i/i 










Townships. 


(0 

•a 


to 


V 

be 


■c 


'C 


■ ' 

in 
u 


:3 


k 


o 


s 


> 


3 

pa 




M 





Pranklin 


5 

2 

17 






r 








Clpar CrefJf 






I 
13 










2 


4 


I 








3 

17 












3 

I 


3 

2 


S 

4 
I 








"\A7"a ch iTi ty\ rtfi 


7 

1 








rii*f rficlrl 


I 












4 
4 

2 






I 




I 




Salem 


I 


I 


2 








TTarlflti 






2 










1 










62 


8 


lO 


30 


I 


I 


112 








MAP 

Of 






83 



MONTGOMERY 




WARREN COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 



J 



84 



WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Tbe Marietta Works, one of the most interesting and best 
known of the complex type of enelosui-e, consisted of a square 
enclosing 50 acres in which were several rectangular flat topped 
mounds; and another square enclosing about 27 acres in conjunc- 
tion with which is a large conical mound surrounded by a ditch 
and connected with the square by a supplementary wall or line. 
The two squares with their accompanying figures are not con- 
nected with one another and really constitute two separate groups. 

Prom the larger and more northerly of the two squares, there 
extends a "graded way" toward the river to the west. This 
graded way consisted of parallel earthen walls 680 feet long and 
150 feet apart. When first observed, the surface of the passage 
was rounded and about 20 feet below the top of the walls. 

The large mound connected with the smaller square is now a 
part of the public cemetery at Marietta and is a very imposing 
example of its class. 

The valley of the Muskingum within the borders of Wash- 
ington county is very rich in prehistoric remains. There are a 
total of 115 sites, of which 6 are enclosures, 102 mounds and 7 
village sites. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Townships, 


4 

c 

3 
O 


0) 

a 

3 

"tj 
a 


•n 

u 

1 

> 


Totals. 




13 

3 
I 
I 

23 

I 
8 










5 


5 




























z 








Marietta 


I 














I02 


6 


7 


IIS 











Earthworks at Marietta. 



84 



COUNT 






NOBLE 



*s;*) 



i/V"! C U N T Y 
L--_rt.\ INx-. . I f -..V tt*" fS.. \1X*, .y^ii f .,,, -. 



MONROE 



It' cJ^ 



lliil s 



\- A 









I.i^>--I|' 



L-t ■-■ 












-,.jS 



it> Tl ifli 



MORGAN 



:5 



La' l(i>/M" 



* f - 









jSljnll.llM 



. '"--',.1,.. .__. . 



c o l; N T Y 



..v ii^i \r-c')^ 



/ 


















^: 



K^..A T\':SW""'^''* 



.J Silki 









3l7 I 






\ ■ ■ 

. >^v - - ■ _ t 









fw 






(I 



v.^.-y^-v.^x^^':-^^-!/... 













' --^ 'Sir -'Li**^>!^.5(iiiif 

LiVir lliiiii 









WASHINGTON COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 






' PAttKEOSBURS 



tiJih^nil' 



p''ffWff I J £m[c ^o^aina 



I Ar™f,„J , 



/Wbtv Cn^lflnd 



\N 



S T 



rit1eldg)il 




85 



WAYNE COUNTY. 

Wayne county is fairly rir;h in prehistoric remains, particiilar- 

ly that section adjacent to the headwaters of Killhuck creek. 
There are a total of 42 sites, of which 8 are of the enelosiu'e type, 
20 are mounds, 6 village sites and 8 tairials. 

The Great Trail passed along the southern line of the county 
and many relics of the extensive travel in aboriginal times have 
been found along its course. 

WAYNE COUNTY. 



Townships. 



■a 

B 
5 
O 






C 



in 

be 

a 



•V 



S 

a 



Congress . . . 
Chester .... 

Piaiti 

Oinion 

Franklin . . . . 
Wooster . . . . 

Wayne 

Canaan 

East Union . 
Salt Creek . . 

Paint 

Sugar Creek 

Totals . . 



2 
2 
2 



I 
4 



20 



42 



85 



M E D I N A 



COUNTY 




HO L M E S 



WAYNE COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



86 



WILLIAMS COUNTY. 

An interesting feature of the arciheology of Williams county 
is that the moTmds in every case are in groups. There are 19 
mounds recorded, comprising six gi-oups. Groups of 3 mounds 
each are foxmd in Bridgewater, Florence and two in St. Joseph 
township ; a group of 4 in Northwest township and another group 
of five, three of which are in Northwest and the other two across 
the line in Michigan. 

The county has two enclosures— one in Northwest township 
and one in St. Joseph. There are a total of 36 sites. 

wtTjLiams county. 



Townships. 


4 

a 

1 


in 

B 


S3 
> 


14 

■c 




Northwest 


7 
3 
3 
6 


I 


I 








I 

2 

I 

2 

3 

2 














I 


1 








Pulaski 














I 
I 




Brady 


















Totals 


'9 


2 


4 


II 


36 





86 




D E f I A N C E 



COUNTY 



WILLIAMS COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



87 



WOOD COITNTY. 

The prehistoric sites of Wood eoimt\' are confined mainly to 
the tier of counties Ijordering on the Maumee rivei-. Of the total 
number of 12 sites, there is only one cai-tliwork, an enclosure in 
the extreme northwestei'n part of the county. Two village sites 
and nine burials have been recorded in the county. There are in- 
dications of considerable occupation throughout the county, hut 
this appears to have been of a temporary or transient nature. 

WOOD COUNTY. 



Townships. 



Ross 

Perryburg . . . 
Middleton . . . 
Grand Rapids 

Weston 

Plain 

Milton 



Totals 






ti 
■*-' 

V 

bo 
> 



a 



C4 



1, t 



12 



CO U N T Y 



WOOD COUNTY 

Scale, one inch equals three miles 




87 



88 



WYANDOT COUNTY. 

W,yandot eounty, with ite fine streams and valleys, was a 
favoi'ite country with the aborigines, both in historic and pre- 
historic times. Early exploi-ers f c)und many Indian villages along 
the Sandusky river and the muuerous prehistoric sites show that 
in earher times it was of equal poi^ularity. The Seioto-Sandusky 
trail passed through the county and thus placed it upon one of the 
greatest aboriginal thoroughfares iu the state. 

The valleys of the Sandusky i-iver and its tributary, Tymoch- 
tee creek contain most of the sites in the coimty. There are a total 
of 81 sites, divided as follows: Enclosures, 1; mounds, 53; village 
sites, S; cemeteries, ], and burials, 18. 



WYAXDOT COUNTY. 









to 
V 












(/i 


.* 




c/l 




Townships. 


[r. 




tn 










-o 


JT" 


v 


JA 


u 






S 


s 


^ 


M 


s 


t/i 


■ 


s° 




;> 




J 


1 


Crawford 


I 

7 






I 

4 
3 


I 








3 














5 

lO 

3 


























3 


3 

2 






Eden 










lO 










Mifflin 


I 

12 

4 






I 
3 

2 ■ 






Pitt 


I 


2 






















Totals 


■53 


I 

1 


8 


18 


1 


81 


_ . — . — _ 







— F 









88 




M A R 1 ON 



WYANDOT COUNTY 



Scale, one inch equals three miles 



83 A 




JtiLy. ii^oa 



rtninpfc 14. t-i. 



83 B 




Gro;it Giittrtav iruiii ihi; i\orlli. 




Section iif Soiilli W,-ill. Old Flirt. 





Ka.sl \\":ill U^urlhj Furi Ancitiit Iruui Kicld (Jtiisiilf. 




Section of Kasi Wnll, North Fori. 




West W-.M (Nortii) Fort Ancietit. 





Entrance tu Furl from thi: West. 




Entrance to Fort from East, ■,. 
West. On Each .Si<le .-. ; 
RnaJ R-m tlie r'arnliel Wi.r^ 




\\est Wall, X.inli l'"ort iu':ir 'i ;r:ince to i\[i(lil!e Fnrt 



Entrance to Fort from Inside Lookinij Wf-l. 



Enl ., - i-.irt tniiM V\'i-at, 

i.„ :. ni; East. 



CARTOGRAPinC TABLE. 

A Mounds (burial) 

I I IDntlosures (square). 

O KiK-iosures (circular). 

J Enclosures (crescent). 

■^i- V'ilhigc Sites. 

'--' linrials (ordinary interments). 

■*• Cemeteries. 

•'=1' Sione Graves. 

- *^* - I'.fliKy Mounds. 

X I't-lniglyphs. 

** riiut Quarries. 

^ Caches. 

-^ Roirk Shelters. 



The 1914 Archaeoloqical Atlas of Ohio: Its History and Significance 



by 

William S. Dancey 

The Ohio State University 

Columbus» Ohio 



Paper presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Society for American 
Archaeology in Portland, Oregon, April 12, 1984 



. Paqe 2 



the problem of site verification was not viewed lightly. I think most of the 
reported sites were verified, that the spatial biases can be known, and that the 
Atlas has research potential. 

The uniqueness of the Atlas in a historical sense is obvious, and 
incontestable. There were none like it at the time and the only closely similar 
venture was the Archaeological Atlas of Hichic) an published 17 years later 
(Hinsdale 1931). For such a daring publication, it is surprising that Mills had 
little to say about the fieldwortc on which it was based. Because of the brevity 
of his comments on the background of the project, it is not well known that 
the Atl as was the outgrowth of 20 years of serious survey work by the staff of 
the Ohio State Museum. The present paper aims to correct this deficiency and 
give the Atlas the attention it deserves. 

As far as can be discovered, the Atlas was not reviewed, at least not in 
indexed periodicals. In a sense, therefore, this paper fills a gap; it is 
basically a review, 70 years late. As such, it explores some questions common 
in book reviews: How can the book be described? Was anything of importance 
omitted? How can the information be used today? What place does this project 
have in the history of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society? 

DESCRIPTION 

The Atlas is an oversized book that measures 35 x 43 cm. (13 3/4 x 17 
inches) and is bound on the short edge. It is 2 cm. (3/4 inch) thick and weighs 
approximately 2268 grams (5 pounds). There are 94 sheets in the book (188 
pages), 88 of which show maps of the 88 counties in Ohio. The maps show 5396 
site locations, some of which include a cluster of mounds and earthworks. The 



Paqe 3 



remaining sheets contain the title page and various kinds of "front matter." The 
book was printed in a limited edition of 500 cloth bound copies and possibly 
almost that many paper bound copies (Mills 1914: 388). The complete title of 
the work is as follows: Archaeological Atlas of Ohio; Showing the Distribution 
of Various Classes of Prehistoric Remains in the State with a Map of the 
Principal Indian Trails and Towns . 

The book's front matter includes a "Preface" by Mills and a"Table of 
Contents accompanied" by separate lists of the county maps, the county archaeo- 
logical descriptions, and illustrations (of which there are 60). The front 
matter also includes full page maps of Indian trails and towns and the distribu- 
tion of mounds and enclosures. The "trails" map is accompanied by 1 1/2 pages 
of text; the "earthworks" map stands alone. 

Opening the Atlas , a user finds the county map on the right and an 
archaeological description of the county on the left. Sites are shown as 
orange-colored syrbols (explained in the "Preface") depicting site types in 
Mills' classification. The sites are un-numbered and un-named on the maps and 
no list of sites is included anywhere in the book or referred to as existing in 
some other source. 

The base maps for each county are road maps made by the Ohio Road 
Commission. The scale of all the maps is 3 miles per inch (1:190,080), a medium 
scale in a relative sense. Roads of all grades are included and community grids 
(even for large cities) are shown in detail. Also shown are railroads, canals, 
the names of crossroads, towns, villages, and cities, as well as townships. The 
result is an extremely cluttered format. The orange color of the site symbols 
makes them stand out on the sheets, but it is difficult to see their rela- 
tionship to the general terrain, which must be deduced from the drainage courses 



Page 4 



which are shown on the maps as thin lines. Site distribution in relation to the 
modern built environment is clear, but the relationship to drainage and 
topography is obscure. 

The county histories contain a variable aniount of information, depending 
obviously upon the number of sites and the extent of excavation. They contain 
descriptions of notable sites (e.g. Serpent Mound, Fort Ancient, and Mound 
City), comments on the effect of resources and topography on site density and 
distribution, and an occasional discussion of the function of select sites, or 
the duration of site occupancy for others. All county descriptions include a 
table enumerating the number of each site type present in each township. 

The "Preface" contains a brief discussion of the number of mounds that 
might be present if all were known, a brief history of attempts to produce an 
archaeological map of Ohio, a comment on the completeness of the Atlas , and a 
discussion of the site classification used in the volume. It also has a table 
listing the frequency of occurrence of each site class. Persons who helped more 
than others in compiling site locations are acknowledged by name in the 
concluding paragraph. 

One item of historical interest in the acknowledgements is the identi- 
fication of Henry Clyde Shetrone as a major contributor to the project. 
Shetrone's first year as Mills' assistant in 1913 apparently was spent field 
checking site locations for the Atlas . Mills at this point in his career had 
been Curator of Archaeology for the Ohio State Museum for 16 years, succeeding 
Warren K. Moorehead in the position in 1898. Shetrone continued as Mills' 
assistant until 1921 when Mills was made Director of the Museum, a position he 



Page 5 



held till his death in 1928. Shetrone became Curator in 1921 and succeeded 
Mills as Director in 1929. Publication of the Atlas , then, came at the midpoint 
of Mills' career and at the beginning of Shetrone's. 

Parenthetically, it should be noted also that the Atlas was published in 
the same year that the Society moved from temporary quarters in OSU's Page hall 
to a building on the OSU campus built specifically to house the Society's 
growing library and artifact collections. This was a banner year in the history 
of the Archaeological and Historical Society, which was founded in 1885 and for 
the first thirty years of its existence was moved from one place to another as 
space became needed by the host institution. Starting out in the Ohio State 
Capital building, the Society eventually found space in a number of buildings on 
the OSU campus before getting its own facility. The new Ohio State Museum, 
located on The Ohio State University campus, was to become the Society's home 
for 55 years. 

HISTORY AND METHODOLOGY 

Mills does not say much in the "Preface" to the Atlas as to what labor and 
resources went into making it. This ommission is regrettable because an 
explanation of the methods used in locating sites and entering them on the map 
could help in an evaluation of how to use the At 1 as . The picture given by 
reports and other statements in the Society's Quarterly journal is that work on 
what originally was known as the Archaeological Map of Ohio project can be 
divided into four periods. The first (Period I) covers Moorehead's years as 
Curator of Archaeology, between 1895 and 1897. The first two years of Mills' 
term as Curator constitutes a second period (Period II), the years 1898 and 



Page 6 



1899. More than half (3687-68%) of the sites in the Atlas were recorded in 

these first two periods (Table 1). In Period III, between 1900 and 1909, Mills 

appears to have abandoned the project, although he says in the Atlas "Preface" 

that he devoted spare time for 16 years working on the map. In 1909, at the 

request of the Executive Board of the Society, Mills returned to the plans to 

produce an archaeological map of Ohio. Museum resources were allocated for the 

project during Period IV and five years later the Atlas was a reality. 

The establishment of a position for Curator of Archaeology and the 

beginning of the mapping project late in 1894 were not accidentally linked. The 

first Curator, Warren K. Moorehead, was charged specifically by the Society's 

Executive Committee to make a map of Ohio's sites. Moorehead expressed his 

understanding of the purpose of this project as follows: 

This work has never been established on so large a scale in America. 
France, Germany and England know the exact location of every one of 
their prehistoric remains. As ours are as imposing, as important and 
as interesting as those of Europe, we certainly should not be behind 
our friends across the water in our appreciation and understanding of 
the archaeology of the Ohio Valley. (Moorehead 1895: 422) (under- 
lining added) 

Thus, he views archaeological survey, in which the exact locations of sites are 

recorded, as a basis for archaeological analysis. Late in 1895, at the end of 

his first year on the Society staff, he adds a note of urgency to his statement 

of purpose (Moorehead 1897a:286): Ohio's monuments are being demolished and 

obliterated at an alarming rate; they need to be located, recorded, and possibly 

tested before they are destroyed; these actions will preserve at least some 

record of prehistoric archaeology for future generations of citizens and 

scholars. One year later, in his report of field work in 1896, Moorehead 

(1897b:257) emphasizes both the study potential and the preservation aspects of 



Page 7 



the project, but he does not mention exact locations. Instead, he writes that 
the Europeans know "what mounds, and how many, are in each parish " (underlining 
added) 

While there is no direct evidence, the shift from exact to unit locations 
may reflect difficulty getting exact locations put on a map. Moorehead was 
working with a wall map described as 6 feet square. An estimate of the scale is 
3.5 miles per inch (1:221,760), close to that of the published Atlas . This 
scale is small enough to make precise placement of a site unlikely. Moorehead 
comments in several places that the dots on his map may in some cases mark the 
presence of more than one "monument" (Moorehead 1897b: 258). This is a realis- 
tic position because at the estimated scale a visible sjmbol would measure 500 
meters in diameter (1650 feet, or 1/3 mile). 

Moorehead (esp. 1897b and 1899) devotes much space in his reports to how 
the site locations were determined. He initially collected all references in 
the literature and transferred them to the map. He also sent tracings of 
counties to amateur archaeologists and requested that they record sites known to 
them. This technique was used throughout the project by Moorehead and Mills 
alike, though neither of them appear to have liked it much, or profited much by 
it. Ultimately, Moorehead felt that it was necessary for a trained archaeologist 
to visit a reported site to confirm its existence. In the second year of the 
survey, he stressed the importance of the Society making its own surveys of the 
counties. This strategy continued for the duration of the project. Sites 
reported by informants were field checked if there was doubt about their 
authenticity. Sites reported by knowledgeable informants most often were 
accepted without a field check, unless locational information was unclear. The 
Curators and staff of the museum conducted surveys in the vicinity of sites 



Paqe 8 



under excavation, and conducted tours of poorly known counties to locate new 
sites. In Period IV, Mills devoted months at a time exclusively to the county 
surveys. 

There is little question, if the statements in the Annual Reports are 
accurate, that sites were verified in most cases. Moorehead, in a lonq report 
on work in 1896, comments (Moorehead 1897b: 259) that sites that could not be 
accurately located were not put on the map. Again, in the same place (Moorehead 
1897b: 260), he writes: "We cannot hope to complete our map, or at least have 
it approach completion, unless we resort to personal visitation." Mills also 
underscores the importance of field checks. In the Annual Report for 1899, he 
writes (Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society 1900: 351): "Slow progress 
has been made towards the completion of the Archaeological Map, as it is 
difficult to obtain data concerning mounds, sites, etc. without visiting, in 
person, the sections of the country to be reported" (Ohio Archaeological and 
Historical Society 1900: 351). 

One of the unanswered questions about this work, a curious ommission in the 
Atlas and the Annual Reports , concerns how the locational information was filed. 
There is no mention of a card file or list recording geographic coordinates and 
descriptive features of the sites. Moorehead had his county tracings, and when 
Mills got back to work on the project, in Period IV, he says that he entered 
sites on United States topographic maps. These most likely were the 30 minute 
topographic series maps at a scale of 2 miles per inch (1:125, 000) published by 
the USGS. These maps can not be found today and presumably the information has 
been lost. Furthermore, Moorehead's wall map cannot be found and neither 
Moorehead's nor Mill's archives contain any locational data on sites. There is. 



Page 9 



therefore, no known systematic index of sites that are shown on the Atlas 
sheets, although possibly some locational data might be "excavated" in the files 
of the Ohio Historical Society. 

The Annual Reports are extremely informative about the nature of the 
spatial coverage: as would be expected, the work favors counties with the most 
highly visible, numerous, and varied burial mounds and earthworks. These are 
the counties in which Museum staff worked most vigorously, improving their 
knowledge of archaeological remains around sites being excavated, and 
developing contacts among local people. Counties lacking prominent sites were 
not visited as intensely or frequently and it is possible that many mounds, 
earthworks, and other sites were missed and that site frequencies are 
underrepresented in them. Conversely, counties with energetic amateurs may have 
inflated site numbers. 

Softening the effect of this systematic bias is the strategy Mills adopted 

in Period IV when he reports in the Annual Reports how many counties have been 

completed in preparing the Atlas and the current status of the remaining, 

unexamined counties. The entire 1910 field season was devoted to survey and by 

the end of the summer 67 counties had been visited and the maps prepared. 

Furthermore, publication of the Atlas was delayed until all counties had been 

covered. Mills thought the coverage was quite good; in the Atlas he writes: 

In presenting the Archaeological Atlas of Ohio, the author wishes to 
state it is as near complete as is at present possible, remindful of 
the fact that many monuments have been destroyed by a century or more 
of cultivation of the soil and by other destructive agencies and that 
many, no doubt, exist that we have no records of. (Mills 1914) 

Thus, it would appear that there are no major omissions in the Atl as 

data--no cluster of spectacular earthworks in a county represented by only one 

or two common sites in the Atlas. It is possible, also, that the sample is 



Page 10 



sufficient for all counties, but simply over-represents certain classes in 
counties with abundant, highly visible sites. In any case, the An nu al Reports 
contain information on the activities of the archaeologists from which to learn 
which counties have gotten more attention than others: the bias is 
controllable. 

One element of the project which has an uncontrolled source of bias is site 
class. The project clearly emphasized mortuary archaeology and is a poor 
reflection of settlements and other non-mortuary sites. The sample is dominated 
by mounds, enclosures, burials, cemeteries, stone graves, and effigy mounds 
which collectively constitute 90 percent. Village sites and rock shelters 
obviously are underrepresented, as are flint quarries. While knowable, this 
bias is uncontrollable. There is nothing in presently known sources that gives 
the criteria for selecting the 345 village sites, 35 shelters, and 109 quarries 
from the thousands of such sites that are highly visible today and must have 
been 80 years ago as well and including them in the Atlas . 

In a brief, evaluative synopsis of the history of the At! as , it appears 
that Warren Moorehead, while he was unquestionably interested in excavation, was 
drawn to the survey as a powerful tool for learning something about archae- 
ological sites and artifacts. The Annual Reports for his years with the Society 
are vigorously written and all contain lengthy commentary on the progress of the 
mapping project. Two of them contain conclusions about the distribution of 
certain classes and possible time relationships between them. Mills, on the 
other hand, seems more interested in excavation, having spent the field seasons 
in Period III conducting major excavations. Comments on methodology, goals, and 
results are rare from Mills and it would seem that time spent on the project 
between 1909 and 1914 was given because it was requested by the Society's 



Paqe 11 



Executive Committee. Mill's disinterest is apparent in the Atlas itself and the 
Annual Reports . He knew what he wanted to do in archaeology through excavation 
by 1900; his work after that rarely includes survey. He promoted the book when 
it was published but rarely refers to it in his later writing. Similarly, 
Shetrone rarely mentioned the Atlas in print, and in his Mound Builders (1930), 
the most use he makes of it is to show the state map of earthwork distribution. 
Never-the-less, both Moorehead and Mills insisted on site verification and it Is 
possible that the Atl as can be regarded as a accurate reflection of the 
relative number of some kinds of sites in a given Township or County. Most 
specific site locations in the Atlas are in error, a result of the transference 
of "dots" from map to map and of the two-color printing process. In spite of 
this shortcoming, the distributional data for certain site classes have research 
potential, if the spatial and site type representation biases are taken into 
consideration. 

THE ATLAS AS A SOURCE OF DATA 

If the above characterization of the Archaeological Atlas of Ohio is 
correct, and the historical analysis is accurate, it would appear that his 
volume is a source of useful distributional data and of information on the 
history of archaeology in the eastern Midwest. An archaeologist would be 
foolhardy to try to use the Atlas as a guide to site locations or to suppose 
that a site had been destroyed because nothing can be found at a location shown 
on the map. On the other hand, the data appear acceptable for estimates of the 



Page 12 



probability of site discovery qeographically and environmentally. They should 
be useful also in estimating the degree of site loss in the 70 years since the 
Atlas was published. 

Historically, the Atlas is a genuinely unique accomplishment. It 
represents a daring attempt to try something new and its goals were persistently 
sought for 20 years. Along with the paper trail of reports and other documents, 
the Atl as contains useful information about who was doing what, where, and why. 
In an indirect way it reveals something of the flavor of the Moorehead-Hills 
tradition of archaeology. 

CONCLUSION 

This belated review of William C. Mills' Atlas of Ohio Archaeology suggests 
that the Atlas should be taken seriously as a controlled sample of certain 
classes of sites, but that it is virtually worthless as a source of specific 
Ideational data. The absence of accurate, specific geographic coordinates 
restricts its potential use. On the positive side, however, included sites 
appear to have been verified by a field check. Given the difficulty of travel 
at that time, this was a noteworthy achievement. This investment, however, 
should pay off today by applying modern analytic approaches to these data and 
using the results to give some perspective on cultural resource management 
questions. The cluttered maps do not give a clear picture of site distribution 
relative to environmental features, but transferring the township counts to a 
political map of Ohio should permit the analysis of broad patterns of artifact 
and site distribution. Moorehead hoped that some understanding of Ohio Valley 



Page 13 



archaeology would emerge from the survey that he inaugurated. If the present 
paper Is accurate and promotes greater use of the At! as , his hopes might 
actually be fulfilled, 90 years later. 



References Cited 

Greenman» Emerson F. 

1932 Excavation of the Coon Mound and an analysis of the Adena culture. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Quarterly , Vol. 41, Pp. 

366-523. Columbus. 

Hinsdale, W.B. 

1981 Archaeological Atlas of Michigan . Michigan Handbook Series, No. 4, 

University Museums, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. 

Kellar, James H. 

1960 The C.L. Lewis Stone Mound and the stone mound problem. Indiana 

Historical Society, Prehistory Research Series , Vol. 3, No. 4. 
Indianapolis. 

Mills, William C. 

1914 Archaeological Atlas of Ohio . Ohio Historical Society. Columbus. 

Moorehead, Warren K. 

1895 Mr. Moorehead's report [dated Jan, 15, 1895]. Ohio Archaeological 

and Historical Society Quarterly , Vol. 4, Pp. 421-422. Columbus. 
1897a Mr. Moorehead's report Ldated Dec. 30, 1895]. Ohio Archaeological 

and Historical Society Quarterly , Vol. 5, Pp. 283-286. Columbus. 
1897b Report of fieldwork carried on in the Muskingham, Scioto and Ohio 

Valleys during the season of 1896, Ohio Archaeological and 

Historical Society Quarterly , Vol. 5, Pp. 155-274. Columbus. 

1899 Report of fieldwork in various portions of Ohio. Ohio Archaeological 
and Historical Society Quarterly , Vol. 7, Pp. 110-203. Columbus. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society 

1900 Fifteenth Annual Report [1899], Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Society Quarterly , Vol. 8, Pp. 348~ff: Columbus. 

Shetrone, Henry Clyde 

1930 The Mound-builders. D. Appleton and Co. New York. 



Table 1, The number of recorded Archaeoloqical sites in Ohio for select dates 
between 1895 and 1914. 











Number 


Percent 




Project 


Total 


Est i mated 


Increase 


Increase or 


Year 


Year 


sites 


sites 


Decrease 


Decrease 


Pre 1894 




700 








1895 


1 


3.000 


12,000 


+2300 


+32856 


1896 


2 


2.843 


17,000 


- 157 


- 05% 


1897 


3 


3.292 


15,000 


+ 449 


+ 15% 


1898 


4 


3,472 




+ 180 


+ 05% 


1899 


5 


3,687 




+ 215 


+ 06« 


1914 


20 


5.396 


<11.000 


+1705 


+ 46%